##### AM-81 - Adaptive agents

- Describe different approaches to represent the effects of agent adaptation in the context of a specific agent-based model
- Explain the effects of agent adaptation in the context of a specific agent-based model

- Describe different approaches to represent the effects of agent adaptation in the context of a specific agent-based model
- Explain the effects of agent adaptation in the context of a specific agent-based model

- List different ways connectivity can be determined in a raster and in a polygon dataset
- Explain the nine-intersection model for spatial relationships
- Demonstrate how adjacency and connectivity can be recorded in matrices
- Calculate various measures of adjacency in a polygon dataset
- Create a matrix describing the pattern of adjacency in a set of planar enforced polygons
- Describe real world applications where adjacency and connectivity are a critical component of analysis

- Compare and contrast the impact effect of time for developing consensus-based standards with immediate operational needs
- Explain how a business case analysis can be used to justify the expense of implementing consensus-based standards
- Identify organizations that focus on developing standards related to GIS&T
- Identify standards that are used in GIS&T
- Explain how resistance to change affects the adoption of standards in an organization coordinating a GIS

- Use photo interpretation keys to interpret features on aerial photographs
- Calculate the nominal scale of a vertical aerial image
- Calculate heights and areas of objects and distances between objects shown in a vertical aerial image
- Produce a map of land use/land cover classes using a vertical aerial image
- Describe the elements of image interpretation

- Describe perspectives on the nature and scope of system benefits among agency officials, organizational personnel, and citizens
- Discuss implications of unequal economic power on the kinds of organizations that use, and benefit from, GIS&T

- Demonstrate the relationship between district size (resolution/support) and patterns in aggregate data
- Demonstrate how changing the geometry of regions changes the data values (e.g., voting patterns before and after redistricting)
- Discuss the potential pitfalls of using regions to aggregate geographic information (e.g., census data)
- Explain the nature and causes of the Modifiable Areal Unit Problem (MAUP)
- Attempt to design aggregation regions that overcome MAUP
- Discuss the conditions that require individual spatial entities to be aggregated (e.g., privacy, security, proprietary interests, data simplification)
- Summarize the attributes of individuals within regions using spatial joins

- Differentiate supervised classification from unsupervised classification
- Describe the sequence of tasks involved in the geometric correction of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Global Land Dataset
- Compare pixel-based image classification methods with segmentation techniques
- Explain how to enhance contrast of reflectance values clustered within a narrow band of wavelengths
- Describe an application of hyperspectral image data
- Produce pseudocode for common unsupervised classification algorithms, including chain method, ISODATA method, and clustering
- Calculate a set of filtered reflectance values for a given array of reflectance values and a digital image filtering algorithm
- Describe a situation in which filtered data are more useful than the original unfiltered data
- Perform a manual unsupervised classification given a two-dimensional array of reflectance values and ranges of reflectance values associated with a given number of land cover categories

- Compare and contrast spatial statistical analysis, spatial data analysis, and spatial modeling
- Compare and contrast the methods of analyzing aggregate data as opposed to methods of analyzing a set of individual observations
- Define the terms spatial analysis, spatial modeling, geostatistics, spatial econometrics, spatial statistics, qualitative analysis, map algebra, and network analysis
- Differentiate between geostatistics and spatial statistics
- Discuss situations when it is desirable to adopt a spatial approach to the analysis of data
- Explain what is added to spatial analysis to make it spatio-temporal analysis
- Explain what is special (i.e., difficult) about geospatial data analysis and why some traditional statistical analysis techniques are not suited to geographic problems
- Outline the sequence of tasks required to complete the analytical process for a given spatial problem
- Compare and contrast spatial statistics and map algebra as two very different kinds of data analysis

## FC-31 - Academic origins