All Topics

DM-17 - Object-based spatial databases
  • Discuss the merits of storing geometric data in the same location as attribute data
  • Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of the object-based data model compared to the layer-based vector data model (topological or spaghetti)
  • Describe the architectures of various object-relational spatial data models, including spatial extensions of DBMS, proprietary object-based data models from GIS vendors, and open-source and standards-based efforts
  • Differentiate between the topological vector data model and spaghetti object data with topological rulebases
  • Write a script (in a GIS, database, or Web environment) to read and write data in an objectbased spatial database
  • Transfer geospatial data from an XML schema to a database
  • Discuss the degree to which various object-relational spatial data models approximate a true object-oriented paradigm, and whether they should
DM-04 - Object-oriented DBMS
  • Describe the basic elements of the object-oriented paradigm, such as inheritance, encapsulation, methods, and composition
  • Evaluate the degree to which the object-oriented paradigm does or does not approximate cognitive structures
  • Explain how the principle of inheritance can be implemented using an object-oriented programming approach
  • Defend or refute the notion that the Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a form of object-oriented database
  • Explain how the properties of object orientation allows for combining and generalizing objects
  • Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of object-oriented databases compared to relational databases, focusing on representational power, data entry, storage efficiency, and query performance
  • Implement a GIS database design in an off-the-shelf, object-oriented database
  • Differentiate between object-oriented programming and object-oriented databases
DM-61 - Ongoing GIS revision
  • Describe a method that allows users within an organization to access data, including methods of data sharing, version control, and maintenance
  • Describe how spatial data and GIS&T can be integrated into a work flow process
  • Develop a plan for user feedback and self-evaluation procedures
  • Evaluate how external spatial data sources can be incorporated into the business process
  • Evaluate internal spatial databases for continuing adequacy
  • Evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of an existing enterprise GIS
  • Evaluate the needs for spatial data sources including currency, accuracy and access, specifically addressing issues related to financial costs, sharing arrangements, online/realtime, and transactional processes across an organization
  • Illustrate how a business process analysis can be used to periodically review system requirements
  • List improvements that may be made to the design of an existing GIS
  • Describe how internal spatial data sources can be handled during an implementation process
FC-35 - Openness
  • Assess the status of openness in the GIS&T field
  • In the role of a consultant or chief information officer, respond to a client’s or colleague’s question about the future prospects of open standards and systems in GIS&T
  • Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of adopting open systems in the context of a local government
  • Differentiate “open standards,” “open source,” and “open systems”
FC-34 - Organizational models for coordinating GISs and/or program participants and stakeholders
  • Compare and contrast centralized, federated, and distributed models for managing information infrastructures
  • Describe the roles and relationships of GIS&T support staff
  • Exemplify how to make GIS&T relevant to top management
  • Describe different organizational models for coordinating GIS&T participants and stakeholders
  • Describe the stages of two different models of implementing a GIS within an organization
FC-33 - Organizational models for GIS management
  • Illustrate what functions a support or service center can provide to an organization using GIS&T
  • Analyze how using GIS&T as an integrating technology affects different models of management 
  • Describe how GIS&T can be used in the decision-making process in organizations dealing with natural resource management, business management, public management, or operations management 
  • Explain how GIS&T can be an integrating technology
  • Differentiate an enterprise system from a department-centered GIS
AM-43 - Other classic network problems
  • Describe several classic problems to which network analysis is applied (e.g., the traveling salesman problem, the Chinese postman problem)
  • Explain why heuristic solutions are generally used to address the combinatorially complex nature of these problems and the difficulty of solving them optimally
AM-24 - Outliers
  • Explain how outliers affect the results of analyses
  • Explain how the following techniques can be used to examine outliers: tabulation, histograms, box plots, correlation analysis, scatter plots, local statistics
AM-04 - Overlay
  • Explain why the process “dissolve and merge” often follows vector overlay operations
  • Outline the possible sources of error in overlay operations
  • Compare and contrast the concept of overlay as it is implemented in raster and vector domains
  • Demonstrate how the geometric operations of intersection and overlay can be implemented in GIS
  • Demonstrate why the georegistration of datasets is critical to the success of any map overlay operation
  • Formalize the operation called map overlay using Boolean logic
  • Explain what is meant by the term “planar enforcement”
  • Exemplify applications in which overlay is useful, such as site suitability analysis