All Topics

CV-20 - Raster Formats and Sources
  • Explain how color fastness and color consistency are ensured in map production
  • Compare outputs of the same map at various low and high resolutions
  • Differentiate among the various raster map outputs (JPEG, GIF, TIFF) and various vector formats (PDF, Adobe Illustrator Postscript)
  • Compare and contrast the file formats suited to presentation of maps on the Web to those suited to publication in high resolution contexts
  • Compare and contrast the issues that arise for map production using black-and-white and fourcolor process specifications
  • Outline the process for the digital production of offset press printed maps, including reference to feature and color separates, feature and map composites, and resolution
  • Critique typographic integrity in export formats (e.g., some file export processes break type into letters degrading searchability, font processing, and reliability of Raster Image Processing)
  • Prepare a map file for CMYK publication in a book
  • Prepare a map file for RGB presentation on a Web site
  • Discuss the purpose of advanced production methods (e.g., stochastic screening, hexachrome color, color management and device profiles, trapping, overprinting)
AM-60 - Raster resampling
  • Evaluate methods used by contemporary GIS software to resample raster data on-the-fly during display
  • Select appropriate interpolation techniques to resample particular types of values in raster data (e.g., nominal using nearest neighbor)
  • Resample multiple raster data sets to a single resolution to enable overlay
  • Resample raster data sets (e.g., terrain, satellite imagery) to a resolution appropriate for a map of a particular scale
  • Discuss the consequences of increasing and decreasing resolution
DM-39 - Reconciling database change
  • Design a test of reliability of change information (e.g., the logical consistency of updates to the TIGER database)
  • Implement a test of reliability of change information
DM-03 - Relational DBMS
  • Explain the advantage of the relational model over earlier database structures including spreadsheets
  • Define the basic terms used in relational database management systems (e.g., tuple, relation, foreign key, SQL, relational join)
  • Discuss the efficiency and costs of normalization
  • Describe the entity-relationship diagram approach to data modeling
  • Explain how entity-relationship diagrams are translated into relational tables
  • Create an SQL query that extracts data from related tables
  • Describe the problems associated with failure to follow the first and second normal forms (including data confusion, redundancy, and retrieval difficulties)
  • Demonstrate how search and relational join operations provide results for a typical GIS query and other simple operations using the relational DBMS within a GIS software application
FC-09 - Relationships between space and time
  • Discuss common prepositions and adjectives (in any particular language) that signify either spatial or temporal relations but are used for both kinds, such as “after” or “longer”
  • Describe different types of movement and change
  • Understand the physical notions of velocity and acceleration which are fundamentally about movement across space through time
  • Identify various types of geographic interactions in space and time
  • Compare and contrast the characteristics of spatial and temporal dimensions
KE-05 - Requirements analysis
  • Describe the need for user-centered requirements analysis
  • Create requirements reports for individual potential applications in terms of the data, procedures, and output needed
  • Assess the relative importance and immediacy of potential applications
  • Synthesize the needs of individual users and tasks into enterprise-wide needs
  • Differentiate between the responsibilities of the proposed system and those that remain with the user
  • Illustrate how a business process analysis can be used to identify requirements during a GIS implementation
  • Describe how spatial data and GIS&T can be integrated into a workflow process
  • Evaluate how external spatial data sources can be incorporated into the business process
  • Develop use cases for potential applications using established techniques with potential users, such as questionnaires, interviews, focus groups, the Delphi method, and/or joint application development (JAD)
  • Document existing and potential tasks in terms of workflow and information flow
FC-21 - Resolution
  • Illustrate and explain the distinction between resolution, precision, and accuracy
  • Discuss the implications of the sampling theorem (? = 0.5 d) to the concept of resolution
  • Differentiate among the spatial, spectral, radiometric, and temporal resolution of a remote sensing instrument
  • Explain how resampling affects the resolution of image data
  • Discuss the advantages and potential problems associated with the use of minimum mapping unit (MMU) as a measure of the level of detail in land use, land cover, and soils maps
  • Illustrate and explain the distinctions between spatial resolution, thematic resolution, and temporal resolution
  • Illustrate the impact of grid cell resolution on the information that can be portrayed
  • Relate the concept of grid cell resolution to the more general concept of “support” and granularity
  • Evaluate the implications of changing grid cell resolution on the results of analytical applications by using GIS software
  • Evaluate the ease of measuring resolution in different types of tessellations
AM-68 - Rule learning
  • Describe how a neural network may use training rules to learn from input data