All Topics

A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P R S T U V W
DM-01 - Basic data structures
  • Define basic data structure terminology (e.g., records, field, parent/child, nodes, pointers)
  • Analyze the relative storage efficiency of each of the basic data structures
  • Implement algorithms that store geospatial data to a range of data structures
  • Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different data structures (e.g., arrays, linked lists, binary trees) for storing geospatial data
  • Differentiate among data models, data structures, and file structures
AM-25 - Bayesian methods
  • Define “prior and posterior distributions” and “Markov-Chain Monte Carlo”
  • Explain how the Bayesian perspective is a unified framework from which to view uncertainty
  • Compare and contrast Bayesian methods and classical “frequentist” statistical methods
CV-19 - Big Data Visualization

As new information and communication technologies have altered so many aspects of our daily lives over the past decades, they have simultaneously stimulated a shift in the types of data that we collect, produce, and analyze. Together, this changing data landscape is often referred to as "big data." Big data is distinguished from "small data" not only by its high volume but also by the velocity, variety, exhaustivity, resolution, relationality, and flexibility of the datasets. This entry discusses the visualization of big spatial datasets. As many such datasets contain geographic attributes or are situated and produced within geographic space, cartography takes on a pivotal role in big data visualization. Visualization of big data is frequently and effectively used to communicate and present information, but it is in making sense of big data – generating new insights and knowledge – that visualization is becoming an indispensable tool, making cartography vital to understanding geographic big data. Although visualization of big data presents several challenges, human experts can use visualization in general, and cartography in particular, aided by interfaces and software designed for this purpose, to effectively explore and analyze big data.

CV-12 - Bivariate and Multivariate Maps
  • Differentiate the interpretation of a series of three maps and a single multivariate map, each representing the same three related variables
  • Design a single map symbol that can be used to symbolize a set of related variables
  • Create a map that displays related variables using different mapping methods (e.g., choropleth
  • and proportional symbol, choropleth and cartogram) Create a map that displays related variables using the same mapping method (e.g., bivariate choropleth map, bivariate dot map)
  • Design a map series to show the change in a geographic pattern over time
  • Detect a multivariate outlier using a combination of maps and graphs
  • Explain the relationship among several variables in a parallel coordinate plot
KE-20 - Budgeting for GIS management
  • Describe various approaches to the long-term funding of a GIS in an organization
  • Describe methods to evaluate the return on investment (ROI) of a GIS within an organization
  • Develop a budget for ongoing re-design and system improvement
  • Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of maintenance contracts for software, hardware, and data across an enterprise
  • Evaluate the adequacy of current investments in capital (e.g., facilities, hardware, software) and labor for a GIS
  • Justify changes to the investment in an enterprise GIS, including both cutbacks and increased expenses
AM-03 - Buffers

This short article introduces the definition of buffer and explains how buffers are created for single or multiple geographic features of different geometric types. It also discusses how buffers are generated differently in vector and raster data models and based on the concept of cost.

AM-15 - Calculating surface derivatives
  • List the likely sources of error in slope and aspect maps derived from digital elevation models (DEMs) and state the circumstances under which these can be very severe
  • Outline how higher order derivatives of height can be interpreted
  • Explain how slope and aspect can be represented as the vector field given by the first derivative of height
  • Explain why the properties of spatial continuity are characteristic of spatial surfaces
  • Explain why zero slopes are indicative of surface specific points such as peaks, pits, and passes, and list the conditions necessary for each
  • Design an algorithm that calculates slope and aspect from a triangulated irregular network (TIN) model
  • Outline a number of different methods for calculating slope from a DEM
KE-10 - Capital: facilities and equipment
  • Identify the hardware and space that will be needed for a GIS implementation
  • Compare and contrast the relative merits of housing GISs within IT (information technology) and MIS (management information system) facilities versus keeping them separate
  • Collaborate effectively with various units in an institution to develop efficient hardware and space solutions
  • Hypothesize the ways in which capital needs for GIS may change in the future
CV-32 - Cartograms

Cartograms are used for thematic mapping. They are a particular class of map type where some aspect of the geometry of the map is modified to accommodate the problem caused by perceptually different geographies. Standard thematic maps, such as the choropleth, have inherent biases simply due to the fact that areas will likely be very different in size from one another. The tendency to see larger areas as more important, regardless of the variable being mapped, can cause confusion. Cartograms tackle this by modifying the geography, effectively normalizing it to create a map where each area takes on a new shape and/or size based on the variable being mapped. Cartograms therefore depict geographical space diagrammatically as they lose their relationship with true coordinate system geometry. There are four main types of cartogram which each represent the mapped variable differently – non-contiguous, contiguous, graphical and gridded.  

AM-12 - Cartographic modeling
  • Describe the difference between prescriptive and descriptive cartographic models
  • Develop a flowchart of a cartographic model for a site suitability problem
  • Discuss the origins of cartographic modeling with reference to the work of Ian McHarg

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