All Topics

FC-16 - Area and Region
  • List reasons why the area of a polygon calculated in a GIS might not be the same as the real world object it describes
  • Demonstrate how the area of a region calculated from a raster data set will vary by resolution and orientation
  • Outline an algorithm to find the area of a polygon using the coordinates of its vertices
  • Explain how variations in the calculation of area may have real world implications, such as calculating density
  • Delineate regions using properties, spatial relationships, and geospatial technologies
  • Exemplify regions found at different scales
  • Explain the relationship between regions and categories
  • Identify the kinds of phenomena commonly found at the boundaries of regions
  • Explain why general-purpose regions rarely exist
  • Differentiate among different types of regions, including functional, cultural, physical, administrative, and others
  • Compare and contrast the opportunities and pitfalls of using regions to aggregate geographic information (e.g., census data)
  • Use established analysis methods that are based on the concept of region (e.g., landscape ecology)
  • Explain the nature of the Modifiable Areal Unit Problem (MAUP)
CP-04 - Artificial intelligence
  • Describe computational intelligence methods that may apply to GIS&T
  • Exemplify the potential for machine learning to expand performance of specialized geospatial analysis functions
  • Identify artificial intelligence tools that may be useful for GIS&T
  • Describe a hypothesis space that includes searches for optimality of solutions within that space
GS-10 - Balancing data access, security, and privacy
  • Assess the effect of restricting data in the context of the availability of alternate sources of data
  • Exemplify areas where post-9/11 changes in policies have restricted or expanded data access
GS-21 - Balancing security and open access to geospatial information
  • Discuss the way that a legal regime balances the need for security of geospatial data with the desire for open access
DM-01 - Basic data structures
  • Define basic data structure terminology (e.g., records, field, parent/child, nodes, pointers)
  • Analyze the relative storage efficiency of each of the basic data structures
  • Implement algorithms that store geospatial data to a range of data structures
  • Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different data structures (e.g., arrays, linked lists, binary trees) for storing geospatial data
  • Differentiate among data models, data structures, and file structures
AM-25 - Bayesian methods
  • Define “prior and posterior distributions” and “Markov-Chain Monte Carlo”
  • Explain how the Bayesian perspective is a unified framework from which to view uncertainty
  • Compare and contrast Bayesian methods and classical “frequentist” statistical methods
CV-19 - Big Data Visualization
  • Explain how the concept “digital cartographic models” unifies a number of principles for computer cartography
  • Identify areas in cartography and visualization that have, and those that have not, advanced because of computational approaches
  • Explain how the rise of interoperability and open standards has affected the production of cartographic representations and visualizations
  • Explain how optimization techniques are improving the automated design of maps
  • Describe the structure and function of geographic names databases (i.e., gazetteer) for use in mapping
  • Differentiate between GIS and graphics software tools for mapping and those for visualization purposes
CV-12 - Bivariate and Multivariate Maps
  • Differentiate the interpretation of a series of three maps and a single multivariate map, each representing the same three related variables
  • Design a single map symbol that can be used to symbolize a set of related variables
  • Create a map that displays related variables using different mapping methods (e.g., choropleth
  • and proportional symbol, choropleth and cartogram) Create a map that displays related variables using the same mapping method (e.g., bivariate choropleth map, bivariate dot map)
  • Design a map series to show the change in a geographic pattern over time
  • Detect a multivariate outlier using a combination of maps and graphs
  • Explain the relationship among several variables in a parallel coordinate plot
KE-20 - Budgeting for GIS management
  • Describe various approaches to the long-term funding of a GIS in an organization
  • Describe methods to evaluate the return on investment (ROI) of a GIS within an organization
  • Develop a budget for ongoing re-design and system improvement
  • Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of maintenance contracts for software, hardware, and data across an enterprise
  • Evaluate the adequacy of current investments in capital (e.g., facilities, hardware, software) and labor for a GIS
  • Justify changes to the investment in an enterprise GIS, including both cutbacks and increased expenses
AM-03 - Buffers

This short article introduces the definition of buffer and explains how buffers are created for single or multiple geographic features of different geometric types. It also discusses how buffers are generated differently in vector and raster data models and based on the concept of cost.