Explain why plane coordinates are sometimes preferable to geographic coordinates

Identify the map projection(s) upon which UTM coordinate systems are based, and explain the relationship between the projection(s) and the coordinate system grid

Discuss the magnitude and cause of error associated with UTM coordinates

Differentiate the characteristics and uses of the UTM coordinate system from the Military Grid Reference System (MGRS) and the World Geographic Reference System (GEOREF)

Explain what State Plane Coordinates system (SPC) eastings and northings represent

Associate SPC coordinates and zone specifications with corresponding positions on a U.S. map or globe

Identify the map projection(s) upon which SPC coordinate systems are based, and explain the relationship between the projection(s) and the coordinate system grids

Discuss the magnitude and cause of error associated with SPC coordinates

Recommend the most appropriate plane coordinate system for applications at different spatial extents and justify the recommendation

Critique the U.S. Geological Survey’s choice of UTM as the standard coordinate system for the U.S. National Map

Describe the characteristics of the “national grids” of countries other than the U.S.

Explain what Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) eastings and northings represent

Associate UTM coordinates and zone specifications with corresponding position on a world map or globe

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