Domain Applications

The Domain Applications knowledge area focuses on the linkages between the foundational GIS&T competencies found in other components of the Body of Knowledge and their implementation across a wide range of application areas, highlighting their scope and depth and providing evaluation of their impacts. This Knowledge Area is new and therefore was not part of the first GIS&T Body of Knowledge, published in 2006. 

Entries that have been completed are in bold. Forthcoming, future topics are italicized

If you’d like to propose an entry on a topic missing from the list, please contact the Domain Applications knowledge area editor Jeff Hamerlinck <jeff.hamerlinck @> or the GIS&T BoK Project Manager, Diana Sinton ( 

Agriculture Forestry Urban & Regional Planning
Archaeology Humanitarian Mapping Utilities
Architecture Hydrology and Hydraulics Water Resources
Civil Engineering Insurance Wildlife & Fisheries Science and Management
Commercial Business Land Administration  
Conservation Landscape Architecture  
Criminal Justice / Law Enforcement Landscape Ecology  
Digital Humanities Marine Science  
Earth Science Research Marketing  
Economic Development Geospatial Intelligence & National Security  
Ecosystem Science & Management Natural Resource Management  
Education Public Health  
Emergency Response Public Policy  
Energy Development Real Estate  
Environmental Science & Management Recreation Planning & Management  
Epidemiology Retail Business  
Facilities Management Telecommunications  


DA-23 - GIS&T and Marine Science

Image courtesy of the National Academy of Sciences Ocean Studies Board


GIS&T has traditionally provided effective technological solutions to the integration, visualization, and analysis of heterogeneous, georeferenced data on land. In recent years, our ability to measure change in the ocean is increasing, not only because of improved measuring devices and scientific techniques, but also because new GIS&T is aiding us in better understanding this dynamic environment. The domain has progressed from applications that merely collect and display data to complex simulation, modeling, and the development of new research methods and concepts.

DA-38 - GIS&T and Retail Business

Where should a retail business occur or locate within a region?  What would that trade area look like?  Should a retail expansion occur and how would that affect sales of other nearby existing locations?  Would a new retail location have the right demographic or socio-economic customer base to be profitable?  These are important questions for retailers to consider.  Within the evolving landscape of GIS, there is more geospatial data than ever before about the potential customer.  In retail, the application of maps and mapping technology is growing to include commercial real estate, logistics, and marketing to name a few.  There has been an increased momentum across commercial applications for geospatial technologies delivered in an easy to comprehend format for a variety of end users.  

DA-33 - GIS&T in Urban and Regional Planning

Professionals within the urban and regional planning domain have long utilized GIS&T to better understand cities through mapping urban data, representing new proposals, and conducting modeling and analysis to help address urban problems. These activities include spatial data collection and management, cartography, and a variety of applied spatial analysis techniques. Urban and regional planning has developed the sub-fields of planning support systems and Geodesign, both of which describe a combination of technologies and methods to incorporate GIS&T into collaborative planning contexts. In the coming years, shifting patterns of global urbanization, smart cities, and urban big data present emerging opportunities and challenges for urban planning professionals.

DA-04 - The scope of GIS&T applications
  • Differentiate between project-specific applications and enterprise systems
  • Differentiate between applications for scientific research and resource management decision support
  • Identify tasks that are structured, semi-structured, and unstructured
DA-03 - Typical CA applications
  • Exemplify CA simulations of urban growth
  • Exemplify CA simulations of real estate development
  • Exemplify CA simulations of wild fire