The foundational concepts are the elementary building blocks and context setting constraints of all other entries in the BoK. The latter encompass the philosophical and mathematical support for GIScience as well as data models, while the constituent elements include, among others, notions of scale, spatial data quality, and openness. This knowledge area is also the place to look for the origins and future of GIScience.
Topics in this Knowledge Area are listed thematically below. Existing topics are linked directly to their original (2006) or revised entries; forthcoming, future topics are italicized.