Foundational Concepts

The foundational concepts are the elementary building blocks and context setting constraints of all other entries in the BoK. The latter encompass the philosophical and mathematical support for GIScience as well as data models, while the constituent elements include, among others, notions of scale, spatial data quality, and openness. This knowledge area is also the place to look for the origins and future of GIScience.

Topics in this Knowledge Area are listed thematically below. Existing topics are linked directly to their original (2006) or revised entries; forthcoming, future topics are italicized. 

Philosophical Basic Measures Social  
Metaphysics and Ontology Distance, Length, and Direction Primary and Secondary Data Sources  
Epistemology Shape Organizational Models for GIS Management  
Philosophical Perspectives Area and Region Organizational models for coordinating GISs and/or program participants and stakeholders  
Cognitive Proximity & Distance Decay  Openness  
Perceptions and Cognition of Geographic Phenomena Adjacency and Connectivity Origins  
From Concepts to Data Resolution Public Sector Origins  
Place and Landscape Geometric Primitives Private Sector Origins  
The Power of Maps Interrogating Geographic Information Academic Origins  
Learning from Experience Set Theory    
Domains of Geographic Information Structured Query Language (SQL) and Attribute Queries    
Space Spatial Queries    
Time Uncertainty    
Relationships between Space and Time Error     
Properties Problems of Scale and Zoning    
Networks Defined Thematic Accuracy    
Scale and Generalization Definitions within a Conceptual Model of Uncertainty    
Events and Processes