- Formalize attribute values and domains in terms of set theory
- Develop alternative forms of representations for situations in which attributes do not adequately capture meaning
- Define Stevens’ four levels of measurement (i.e., nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio)
- Describe particular geographic phenomena in terms of attributes
- Determine the proper uses of attributes based on their domains
- Characterize the domains of attributes in a GIS, including continuous and discrete, qualitative and quantitative, absolute and relative
- Recognize situations and phenomena in the landscape which cannot be adequately represented by formal attributes, such as aesthetics
- Compare and contrast the theory that properties are fundamental (and objects are human simplifications of patterns thereof) with the theory that objects are fundamental (and properties are attributes thereof)
- Recognize attribute domains that do not fit well into Stevens’ four levels of measurement such as cycles, indexes, and hierarchies
The foundational concepts are the elementary building blocks and context setting constraints of all other entries in the BoK. The latter encompass the philosophical and mathematical support for GIScience as well as data models, while the constituent elements include, among others, notions of scale, spatial data quality, and openness. This knowledge area is also the place to look for the origins and future of GIScience.
Topics in this Knowledge Area are listed thematically below. Existing topics are in regular font and linked directly to their original entries (published in 2006; these contain only Learning Objectives). Entries that have been expanded and revised are in bold. Forthcoming, future topics are italicized.