All Topics

A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P R S T U V W
GS-08 - Mechanisms of control of geospatial information
  • Distinguish among the various intellectual property rights, including copyright, patent, trademark, business methods, and other rights
  • Explain how databases may be protected under U.S. copyright law
  • Describe advantages and disadvantages of “open” alternatives to copyright protection, such as the Creative Commons
  • Outline the intellectual property protection clause of a contract that a local government uses to license geospatial data to a community group
  • Explain how maps may be protected under U.S. copyright law
  • Differentiate geospatial information from other works protected under copyright law
DM-57 - Metadata
  • Define “metadata” in the context of the geospatial data set
  • Use a metadata utility to create a geospatial metadata document for a digital database you created
  • Formulate metadata for a graphic output that would be distributed to the general public
  • Formulate metadata for a geostatistical analysis that would be released to an experienced audience
  • Compose data integrity statements for a geostatistical or spatial analysis to be included in graphic output
  • Identify software tools available to support metadata creation
  • Interpret the elements of an existing metadata document
  • Explain why metadata production should be integrated into the data production and database development workflows, rather than treated as an ancillary activity
  • Outline the elements of the U.S. geospatial metadata standard
  • Explain the ways in which metadata increases the value of geospatial data
CV-25 - Metadata, Quality, and Uncertainty
  • Describe a scenario in which possible errors in a map may impact subsequent decision making, such as a land use decision based on a soils map
  • Evaluate the uncertainty inherent in a map
  • Compare the decisions made using a map with a reliability overlay from those made using a map pair separating data and reliability, both drawn from the same dataset
  • Critique the assumption that maps can or should be “accurate”
FC-01 - Metaphysics and ontology
  • Define common theories on what is “real,” such as realism, idealism, relativism, and experiential realism
  • Compare and contrast the ability of different theories to explain various situations
  • Recognize the commonalities of philosophical viewpoints and appreciate differences to enable work with diverse colleagues
  • Evaluate the influences of particular worldviews (including one’s own) on GIS practices
  • Justify the metaphysical theories with which you agree
  • Identify the ontological assumptions underlying the work of colleagues
AM-82 - Microsimulation and calibration of agent activities
  • Describe a “bottom-up” simulation from an activity-perspective with changes in the locations and/or activities the individual person (and/or vehicle) in space and time, in the activity patterns and space-time trajectories created by these activity patterns, and in the consequent emergent phenomena, such as traffic jams and land-use patterns
  • Describe how various parameters in an agent-based model can be modified to evaluate the range of behaviors possible with a model specification
  • Describe how measurements on the output of a model can be used to describe model behavior
DC-15 - Mission planning
  • Plan an aerial imagery mission in response to a given request for proposals and map of a study area, taking into consideration vertical and horizontal control, atmospheric conditions, time of year, and time of day
CP-15 - Mobile Devices

Mobile devices refer to a computing system intended to be used by hand, such as smartphones or tablet computers. Mobile devices more broadly refer to mobile sensors and other hardware that has been made for relatively easy transportability, including wearable fitness trackers. Mobile devices are particularly relevant to Geographic Information Systems and Technology (GIS&T) in that they house multiple locational sensors that were until recently very expensive and only accessible to highly trained professionals. Now, mobile devices serve an important role in computing platform infrastructure and are key tools for collecting information and disseminating information to, from, and among heterogeneous and spatially dispersed audiences and devices. Due to the miniaturization and the decrease in the cost of computing capabilities, there has been widespread social uptake of mobile devices, making them ubiquitous. Mobile devices are embedded in Geographic Information Science (GIScience) meaning GIScience is increasingly permeating lived experiences and influencing social norms through the use of mobile devices. In this entry, locational sensors are described, with computational considerations specifically for mobile computing. Mobile app development is described in terms of key considerations for native versus cross-platform development. Finally, mobile devices are contextualized within computational infrastructure, addressing backend and frontend considerations.

CV-40 - Mobile Maps and Responsive Design

Geographic information increasingly is produced and consumed on mobile devices. The rise of mobile mapping is challenging traditional design conventions in research, industry, and education, and cartographers and GIScientists now need to accommodate this mobile context. This entry introduces emerging design considerations for mobile maps. First, the technical enablements and constraints that make mobile devices unique are described, including Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers and other sensors, reduced screensize and resolution, reduced processing power and memory capacity, less reliable data connectivity, reduced bandwidth, and physical mobility through variable environmental conditions. Scholarly influences on mobile mapping also are reviewed, including location-based services, adaptive cartography, volunteered geographic information, and locational privacy. Next, two strategies for creating mobile maps are introduced—mobile apps installed onto mobile operating systems versus responsive web maps that work on mobile and nonmobile devices—and core concepts of responsive web design are reviewed, including fluid grids, media queries, breakpoints, and frameworks. Finally, emerging design recommendations for mobile maps are summarized, with representation design adaptations needed to account for reduced screensizes and bandwidth and interaction design adaptations needed to account for multi-touch interaction and post-WIMP interfaces.

DM-21 - Modeling three-dimensional (3-D) entities
  • Identify GIS application domains in which true 3-D models of natural phenomena are necessary
  • Illustrate the use of Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) to model landscapes in 3-D
  • Explain how octatrees are the 3-D extension of quadtrees
  • Explain how voxels and stack-unit maps that show the topography of a series of geologic layers might be considered 3-D extensions of field and vector representations respectively
  • Explain how 3-D models can be extended to additional dimensions
  • Explain the use of multi-patching to represent 3-D objects
  • Explain the difficulties in creating true 3-D objects in a vector or raster format
  • Differentiate between 21/2-D representations and true 3-D models
DM-19 - Modeling uncertainty
  • Differentiate among modeling uncertainty for entire datasets, for features, and for individual data values
  • Describe SQL extensions for querying uncertainty information in databases
  • Describe extensions to relational DBMS to represent different types of uncertainty in attributes, including both vagueness/fuzziness and error-based uncertainty
  • Discuss the role of metadata in representing and communicating dataset-level uncertainty
  • Create a GIS database that models uncertain information
  • Identify whether it is important to represent uncertainty in a particular GIS application
  • Describe the architecture of data models (both field- and object-based) to represent feature-level and datum-level uncertainty
  • Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of existing uncertainty models based on storage efficiency, query performance, ease of data entry, and ability to implement in existing software

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