##### PD-02 - Integer programming

- Explain why integer programs are harder to solve than linear programs
- Differentiate between a linear program and an integer program

- Explain why integer programs are harder to solve than linear programs
- Differentiate between a linear program and an integer program

- Identify the spatial concepts that are assumed in different interpolation algorithms
- Compare and contrast interpolation by inverse distance weighting, bi-cubic spline fitting, and kriging
- Differentiate between trend surface analysis and deterministic spatial interpolation
- Explain why different interpolation algorithms produce different results and suggest ways by which these can be evaluated in the context of a specific problem
- Design an algorithm that interpolates irregular point elevation data onto a regular grid
- Outline algorithms to produce repeatable contour-type lines from point datasets using proximity polygons, spatial averages, or inverse distance weighting
- Implement a trend surface analysis using either the supplied function in a GIS or a regression function from any standard statistical package
- Describe how surfaces can be interpolated using splines
- Explain how the elevation values in a digital elevation model (DEM) are derived by interpolation from irregular arrays of spot elevations
- Discuss the pitfalls of using secondary data that has been generated using interpolations (e.g., Level 1 USGS DEMs)
- Estimate a value between two known values using linear interpolation (e.g., spot elevations, population between census years)

- Define “intervisibility”
- Outline an algorithm to determine the viewshed (area visible) from specific locations on surfaces specified by DEMs
- Perform siting analyses using specified visibility, slope, and other surface related constraints
- Explain the sources and impact of errors that affect intervisibility analyses

- Explain how spatial data mining techniques can be used for knowledge discovery
- Explain how a Bayesian framework can incorporate expert knowledge in order to retrieve all relevant datasets given an initial user query
- Explain how visual data exploration can be combined with data mining techniques as a means of discovering research hypotheses in large spatial datasets

- Distinguish between GIS, LIS, and CAD/CAM in the context of land records management
- Evaluate the difference in accuracy requirements for deeds systems versus registration systems
- Exemplify and compare deed descriptions in terms of how accurately they convey the geometry of a parcel
- Distinguish between topological fidelity and geometric accuracy in the context of a plat map

- Explain how knowledge of the history of the development of enterprise GIS can aid in an implementation process
- Evaluate case studies of past GISs to identify factors leading to success and failure
- Discuss the evolution of isolated GIS projects to enterprise GIS

## GS-22 - Implications of distributed GIS&T