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A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P R S T U V W
CV-13 - User Interface and User Experience (UI/UX) Design

Advances in personal computing and information technologies have fundamentally transformed how maps are produced and consumed, as many maps today are highly interactive and delivered online or through mobile devices. Accordingly, we need to consider interaction as a fundamental complement to representation in cartography and visualization. UI (user interface) / UX (user experience) describes a set of concepts, guidelines, and workflows for critically thinking about the design and use of an interactive product, map or otherwise. This entry introduces core concepts from UI/UX design important to cartography and visualization, focusing on issues related to visual design. First, a fundamental distinction is made between the use of an interface as a tool and the broader experience of an interaction, a distinction that separates UI design and UX design. Norman’s stages of interaction framework then is summarized as a guiding model for understanding the user experience with interactive maps, noting how different UX design solutions can be applied to breakdowns at different stages of the interaction. Finally, three dimensions of UI design are described: the fundamental interaction operators that form the basic building blocks of an interface, interface styles that implement these operator primitives, and recommendations for visual design of an interface.

KE-22 - User support
  • Develop a plan to provide user support to aid in the implementation process
  • Illustrate how the failure of successfully engaging user support can affect the outcome of a GIS implementation project
CV-24 - User-Centered Design and Evaluation
  • Describe the baseline expectations that a particular map makes of its audience
  • Compare and contrast the interpretive dangers (e.g., ecological fallacy, Modifiable Areal Unit Problem) that are inherent to different types of maps or visualizations and their underlying geographic data
  • Identify several uses for which a particular map is or is not effective
  • Identify the particular design choices that make a map more or less effective
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of a map for its audience and purpose
  • Design a testing protocol to evaluate the usability of a simple graphical user interface
  • Perform a rigorous sampled field check of the accuracy of a map
  • Discuss the use limitations of the USGS map accuracy standards for a range of projects demanding different levels of precision (e.g., driving directions vs. excavation planning)
DM-30 - Vagueness
  • Compare and contrast the meanings of related terms such as vague, fuzzy, imprecise, indefinite, indiscrete, unclear, and ambiguous
  • Describe the cognitive processes that tend to create vagueness
  • Recognize the degree to which vagueness depends on scale
  • Evaluate vagueness in the locations, time, attributes, and other aspects of geographic phenomena
  • Differentiate between the following concepts: vagueness and ambiguity, well defined and poorly defined objects and fields, and discord and non-specificity
  • Identify the hedges used in language to convey vagueness
  • Evaluate the role that system complexity, dynamic processes, and subjectivity play in the creation of vague phenomena and concepts
  • Differentiate applications in which vagueness is an acceptable trait from those in which it is unacceptable
KE-14 - Valuing and measuring benefits
  • Distinguish between operational, organizational, and societal activities that rely upon geospatial information
  • Describe the potential benefits of geospatial information in terms of efficiency, effectiveness, and equity
  • Explain how cost-benefit analyses can be manipulated
  • Compare and contrast the evaluation of benefits at different scales (e.g., national, regional/state, local)
  • Identify practical problems in defining and measuring the value of geospatial information in land or other business decisions
DC-14 - Vector data extraction
  • Describe the source data, instrumentation, and workflow involved in extracting vector data (features and elevations) from analog and digital stereoimagery
  • Discuss future prospects for automated feature extraction from aerial imagery
  • Discuss the extent to which vector data extraction from aerial stereoimagery has been automated
CV-03 - Vector Formats and Sources
  • List the data required to explore a specified problem
  • Discuss the extent, classification, and currency of government data sources and their influence on mapping
  • List the data required to compile a map that conveys a specified message
  • Discuss the issue of conflation of data from different sources or for different uses as it relates to mapping
  • Describe a situation in which it would be acceptable to use smaller-scale data sources for compilation to compile a larger scale map
  • Describe the copyright issues involved in various cartographic source materials
  • Explain how data acquired from primary sources, such as satellite imagery and GPS, differ from data compiled from maps, such as DLGs
  • Explain how digital data compiled from map sources influences how subsidiary maps are compiled and used
  • Explain how geographic names databases (i.e., gazetteer) are used for mapping
  • Explain how the inherent properties of digital data, such as Digital Elevation Models, influence how maps can be compiled from them
  • Identify the types of attributes that will be required to map a particular distribution for selected geographic features
  • Determine the standard scale of compilation of government data sources
  • Assess the data quality of a source dataset for appropriateness for a given mapping task, including an evaluation of the data resolution, extent, currency or date of compilation, and level of generalization in the attribute classification
  • Compile a map using at least three data sources
AM-59 - Vector-to-raster and raster-to-vector conversions
  • Explain how the vector/raster/vector conversion process of graphic images and algorithms takes place and how the results are achieved
  • Create estimated tessellated data sets from point samples or isolines using interpolation operations that are appropriate to the specific situation
  • Illustrate the impact of vector/raster/vector conversions on the quality of a dataset
  • Convert vector data to raster format and back using GIS software
DM-51 - Vertical datums
  • Explain how a vertical datum is established
  • Differentiate between NAVD 29 and NAVD 88
  • Illustrate the difference between a vertical datum and a geoid
  • Illustrate the relationship among the concepts ellipsoidal (or geodetic) height, geoidal height, and orthometric elevation
  • Outline the historical development of vertical datums
CV-16 - Virtual and immersive environments
  • Discuss the nature and use of virtual environments, such as Google Earth
  • Explain how various data formats and software and hardware environments support immersive visualization
  • Compare and contrast the relative advantages of different immersive display systems used for cartographic visualization (e.g., CAVEs, GeoWalls)
  • Evaluate the extent to which a GeoWall or CAVE does or does not enhance understanding of spatial data
  • Explain how the virtual and immersive environments become increasingly more complex as we move from the relatively non-immersive VRML desktop environment to a stereoscopic display (e.g., a GeoWall) to a more fully immersive CAVE

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