## All Topics

##### DC-09 - Field data technologies
• Identify the measurement framework that applies to moving object tracking
• Explain the advantage of real-time kinematic GPS in field data collection
• Describe an application of hand-held computing or personal digital assistants (PDAs) for field data collection
• Considering the measurement framework applied to moving object tracking, identify which of the dimensions of location, attribute, and time is fixed, which is controlled, and which is measured
• Describe a real or hypothetical application of a sensor network in field data collection
• Outline a combination of positioning techniques that can be used to support location-based services in a given environment
##### DM-23 - Fields in space and time
• Define a field in terms of properties, space, and time
• Formalize the notion of field using mathematical functions and calculus
• Recognize the influences of scale on the perception and meaning of fields
• Evaluate the field view’s description of “objects” as conceptual discretizations of continuous patterns
• Identify applications and phenomena that are not adequately modeled by the field view
• Identify examples of discrete and continuous change found in spatial, temporal, and spatio-temporal fields
• Relate the notion of field in GIS to the mathematical notions of scalar and vector fields
• Differentiate various sources of fields, such as substance properties (e.g., temperature), artificial constructs (e.g., population density), and fields of potential or influence (e.g., gravity)
##### CV-31 - Flow Maps

Flow mapping is a cartographic method of representing movement of phenomena. Maps of this type often depict the vector movement of entities (imports and exports, people, information) between geographic areas, but the general method also encompasses a range of graphics illustrating networks (e.g., transit and communications grids) and dynamic systems (e.g., wind and water currents). Most flow maps typically use line symbols of varying widths, lengths, shapes, colors, or speeds (in the case of animated flow maps) to show the quality, direction, and magnitude of movements. Aesthetic considerations for flow maps are numerous and their production is often done manually without significant automation. Flow maps frequently use distorted underlying geography to accommodate the placement of flow paths, which are often dramatically smoothed/abstracted into visually pleasing curves or simply straight lines. In the extreme, such maps lack a geographic coordinate space and are more diagrammatic, as in Sankey diagrams, alluvial diagrams, slope graphs, and circle migration plots. Whatever their form, good flow maps should effectively visualize the relative magnitude and direction of movement or potential movement between a one or more origins and destinations.

##### AM-41 - Flow modeling
• Describe practical situations in which flow is conserved while splitting or joining at nodes of the network
• Apply a maximum flow algorithm to calculate the largest flow from a source to a sink, using the edges of the network, subject to capacity constraints on the arcs and the conservation of flow
• Explain how the concept of capacity represents an upper limit on the amount of flow through the network
• Demonstrate how capacity is assigned to edges in a network using the appropriate data structure
##### FC-05 - From concepts to data
• Define the following terms: data, information, knowledge, and wisdom
• Describe the limitations of various information stores for representing geographic information, including the mind, computers, graphics, and text
• Transform a conceptual model of information for a particular task into a data model
##### KE-11 - Funding
• Identify potential sources of funding (internal and external) for a project or enterprise GIS
• Create proposals and presentations to secure funding
• Analyze previous attempts at funding to identify successful and unsuccessful techniques
##### AM-88 - Fuzzy aggregation operators
• Compare and contrast Boolean and fuzzy logical operations
• Compare and contrast several operators for fuzzy aggregation, including those for intersect and union
• Exemplify one use of fuzzy aggregation operators
• Describe how an approach to map overlay analysis might be different if region boundaries were fuzzy rather than crisp
• Describe fuzzy aggregation operators
##### DM-41 - Fuzzy logic
• Describe how linear functions are used to fuzzify input data (i.e., mapping domain values to linguistic variables)
• Support or refute the statement by Lotfi Zadeh, that “As complexity rises, precise statements lose meaning and meaningful statements lose precision,” as it relates to GIS&T
• Explain why fuzzy logic, rather then Boolean algebra models, can be useful for representing real world boundaries between different tree species
##### PD-33 - GDAL/OGR and Geospatial Data IO Libraries

Manipulating (e.g., reading, writing, and processing) geospatial data, the first step in geospatial analysis tasks, is a complicated step, especially given the diverse types and formats of geospatial data combined with diverse spatial reference systems. Geospatial data Input/Output (IO) libraries help facilitate this step by handling some technical details of the IO process. GDAL/OGR is the most widely-used, broadly-supported, and constantly-updated free library among existing geospatial data IO libraries. GDAL/OGR provides a single raster abstract data model and a single vector abstract data model for processing and analyzing raster and vector geospatial data, respectively, and it supports most, if not all, commonly-used geospatial data formats. GDAL/OGR can also perform both cartographic projections on large scales and coordinate transformation for most of the spatial reference systems used in practice. This entry provides an overview of GDAL/OGR, including why we need such a geospatial data IO library and how it can be applied to various formats of geospatial data to support geospatial analysis tasks. Alternative geospatial data IO libraries are also introduced briefly. Future directions of development for GDAL/OGR and other geospatial data IO libraries in the age of big data and cloud computing are discussed as an epilogue to this entry.

##### DM-27 - Genealogical relationships: lineage, inheritance
• Describe ways in which a geographic entity can be created from one or more others
• Discuss the effects of temporal scale on the modeling of genealogical structures
• Describe the genealogy (as identity-based change or temporal relationships) of particular geographic phenomena
• Determine whether it is important to represent the genealogy of entities for a particular application