##### FC-14 - Distance, Length, and Direction

- Describe several different measures of distance between two points (e.g., Euclidean, Manhattan, network distance, spherical)
- Explain how different measures of distance can be used to calculate the spatial weights matrix
- Explain why estimating the fractal dimension of a sinuous line has important implications for the measurement of its length
- Explain how fractal dimension can be used in practical applications of GIS
- Explain the differences in the calculated distance between the same two places when data used are in different projections
- Outline the implications of differences in distance calculations on real world applications of GIS, such as routing and determining boundary lengths and service areas
- Estimate the fractal dimension of a sinuous line
- Describe operations that can be performed on qualitative representations of direction
- Explain any differences in the measured direction between two places when the data are presented in a GIS in different projections
- Compute the mean of directional data
- Compare and contrast how direction is determined and stated in raster and vector data
- Define “direction” and its measurement in different angular measures

## DM-20 - Discrete entities