## 2018 QUARTER 02

##### AM-75 - Interchange with probability • Explain how the process to break out local optima can be based on a probability function
• Outline the TABU heuristic
##### AM-16 - Interpolation methods • Identify the spatial concepts that are assumed in different interpolation algorithms
• Compare and contrast interpolation by inverse distance weighting, bi-cubic spline fitting, and kriging
• Differentiate between trend surface analysis and deterministic spatial interpolation
• Explain why different interpolation algorithms produce different results and suggest ways by which these can be evaluated in the context of a specific problem
• Design an algorithm that interpolates irregular point elevation data onto a regular grid
• Outline algorithms to produce repeatable contour-type lines from point datasets using proximity polygons, spatial averages, or inverse distance weighting
• Implement a trend surface analysis using either the supplied function in a GIS or a regression function from any standard statistical package
• Describe how surfaces can be interpolated using splines
• Explain how the elevation values in a digital elevation model (DEM) are derived by interpolation from irregular arrays of spot elevations
• Discuss the pitfalls of using secondary data that has been generated using interpolations (e.g., Level 1 USGS DEMs)
• Estimate a value between two known values using linear interpolation (e.g., spot elevations, population between census years)
##### AM-17 - Intervisibility • Define “intervisibility”
• Outline an algorithm to determine the viewshed (area visible) from specific locations on surfaces specified by DEMs
• Perform siting analyses using specified visibility, slope, and other surface related constraints
• Explain the sources and impact of errors that affect intervisibility analyses
##### AM-08 - Kernels and density estimation • Describe the relationships between kernels and classical spatial interaction approaches, such as surfaces of potential
• Outline the likely effects on analysis results of variations in the kernel function used and the bandwidth adopted
• Explain why and how density estimation transforms point data into a field representation
• Explain why, in some cases, an adaptive bandwidth might be employed
• Create density maps from point datasets using kernels and density estimation techniques using standard software
• Differentiate between kernel density estimation and spatial interpolation
##### AM-37 - Knowledge discovery • Explain how spatial data mining techniques can be used for knowledge discovery
• Explain how a Bayesian framework can incorporate expert knowledge in order to retrieve all relevant datasets given an initial user query
• Explain how visual data exploration can be combined with data mining techniques as a means of discovering research hypotheses in large spatial datasets
##### AM-29 - Kriging methods • Describe the relationship between the semi-variogram and kriging
• Explain why it is important to have a good model of the semi-variogram in kriging
• Explain the concept of the kriging variance, and describe some of its shortcomings
• Explain how block-kriging and its variants can be used to combine data sets with different spatial resolution (support)
• Compare and contrast block-kriging with areal interpolation using proportional area weighting and dasymetric mapping
• Outline the basic kriging equations in their matrix formulation
• Conduct a spatial interpolation process using kriging from data description to final error map
• Explain why kriging is more suitable as an interpolation method in some applications than others
##### KE-09 - Labor and management • Identify the positions necessary to design and implement a GIS
• Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing elements of the implementation of a geospatial system, such as data entry
• Evaluate the labor needed in past cases to build a new geospatial enterprise
• Create a budget of expected labor costs, including salaries, benefits, training, and other expenses
##### DC-02 - Land records • Distinguish between GIS, LIS, and CAD/CAM in the context of land records management
• Evaluate the difference in accuracy requirements for deeds systems versus registration systems
• Exemplify and compare deed descriptions in terms of how accurately they convey the geometry of a parcel
• Distinguish between topological fidelity and geometric accuracy in the context of a plat map
##### FC-32 - Learning from experience • Explain how knowledge of the history of the development of enterprise GIS can aid in an implementation process
• Evaluate case studies of past GISs to identify factors leading to success and failure
• Discuss the evolution of isolated GIS projects to enterprise GIS
##### AM-40 - Least-cost (shortest) path analysis • Describe some variants of Dijkstra’s algorithm that are even more efficient
• Discuss the difference of implementing Dijkstra’s algorithm in raster and vector modes
• Demonstrate how K-shortest path algorithms can be implemented to find many efficient alternate paths across the network
• Compute the optimum path between two points through a network with Dijkstra’s algorithm
• Explain how a leading World Wide Web-based routing system works (e.g., MapQuest, Yahoo Maps, Google)