## 2018 QUARTER 03

##### KE-19 - Managing GIS operations and infrastructure
• Calculate the estimated schedule required to carry out all of the implementation steps for an enterprise GIS of a given size
• List some of the topics that should be addressed in a justification for implementing an enterprise GIS (e.g., return on investment, workflow, knowledge sharing)
• Indicate the possible justifications that can be used to implement an enterprise GIS
• Exemplify each component of a needs assessment for an enterprise GIS
• Describe the components of a needs assessment for an enterprise GIS
##### DM-40 - Managing versioned geospatial databases
• Describe an application in which it is crucial to maintain previous versions of the database
• Describe existing algorithms designed for performing dynamic queries
• Demonstrate how both the time criticality and the data security might determine whether one performs change detection on-line or off-line in a given scenario
• Explain why the lack of a data librarian to manage data can have disastrous consequences on the resulting dataset
• Produce viable queries for change scenarios using GIS or database management tools
##### AM-06 - Map algebra
• Explain the categories of map algebra operations (i.e., local, focal, zonal, and global functions)
• Explain why georegistration is a precondition to map algebra
• Differentiate between map algebra and matrix algebra using real examples
• Perform a map algebra calculation using command line, form-based, and flow charting user interfaces
• Describe a real modeling situation in which map algebra would be used (e.g., site selection, climate classification, least-cost path)
• Describe how map algebra performs mathematical functions on raster grids
##### CV-23 - Map analysis
• Create a profile of a cross section through a terrain using a topographic map and a digital elevation model (DEM)
• Measure point-feature movement and point-feature diffusion on maps
• Describe maps that can be used to find direction, distance, or position, plan routes, calculate area or volume, or describe shape
• Explain how maps can be used in determining an optimal route or facility selection
• Explain how maps can be used in terrain analysis (e.g., elevation determination, surface profiles, slope, viewsheds, and gradient)
• Explain how the types of distortion indicated by projection metadata on a map will affect map measurements
• Explain the differences between true north, magnetic north, and grid north directional references
• Compare and contrast the manual measurement of the areas of polygons on a map printed from a GIS with those calculated by the computer and discuss the implications these variations in measurement might have on map use
• Determine feature counts of point, line, and area features on maps
• Analyze spatial patterns of selected point, line, and area feature arrangements on maps
• Calculate slope using a topographic map and a DEM
• Calculate the planimetric and actual road distances between two locations on a topographic map
• Plan an orienteering tour of a specific length that traverses slopes of an appropriate steepness and crosses streams in places that can be forded based on a topographic map
• Describe the differences between azimuths, bearings, and other systems for indicating directions
##### CV-22 - Map interpretation
• Identify the landforms represented by specific patterns in contours on a topographic map
• Hypothesize about geographic processes by synthesizing the patterns found on one or more thematic maps or data visualizations
• Match features on a map to corresponding features in the world
• Compare and contrast the interpretation of landscape, geomorphic features, and human settlement types shown on a series of topographic maps from several different countries
##### DM-54 - Map projection classes
• Explain the concepts “developable surface” and “reference globe” as ways of projecting the Earth’s surface
• Explain the mathematical basis by which latitude and longitude locations are projected into x and y coordinate space
• Illustrate the graticule configurations for “other” projection classes, such as polyconic, pseudocylindrical, etc.
• Classify various map projection types according to the geometric properties preserved
• Classify various map projection types by the three main classes of map projections based on developable surfaces
##### DM-55 - Map projection parameters
• Explain how the concepts of the tangent and secant cases relate to the idea of a standard line
• Implement a given map projection formula in a software program that reads geographic coordinates as input and produces projected (x, y) coordinates as output
• Identify the parameters that allow one to focus a projection on an area of interest
• Use GIS software to produce a graticule that matches a target graticule
• Identify the possible “aspects” of a projection and describe the graticule’s appearance in each aspect
• Define key terms such as “standard line,” “projection case,” and “latitude and longitude of origin”
##### DM-53 - Map projection properties
• Describe the visual appearance of the Earth’s graticule
• Discuss what a Tissot indicatrix represents and how it can be used to assess projection-induced error
• Interpret a given a projected graticule, continent outlines, and indicatrixes at each graticule intersection in terms of geometric properties preserved and distorted
• Illustrate distortion patterns associated with a given projection class
• Recognize distortion patterns on a map based upon the graticule arrangement
• Explain the kind of distortion that occurs when raster data are projected
• Explain the rationale for the selection of the geometric property that is preserved in map projections used as the basis of the UTM and SPC systems
• Recommend the map projection property that would be useful for various mapping applications, including parcel mapping, route mapping, etc., and justify your recommendations
• Define the four geometric properties of the globe that may be preserved or lost in projected coordinates
• Explain the concept of a “compromise” projection and for which purposes it is useful
##### CV-06 - Map Projections

Map projection is the process of transforming angular (spherical / elliptical) coordinates into planar coordinates. All map projections introduce distortion (e.g., to areas, angles, distances) in the resulting planar coordinates. Understanding what, where, and how much distortion is introduced is an important consideration for spatial computations and visual interpretation of spatial patterns, as well as for general aesthetics of any map.

##### CV-21 - Map reading
• Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using conventional symbols (e.g., blue=water, green=vegetation, Swiss cross=a hospital) on a map
• Find specified features on a topographic map (e.g., gravel pit, mine entrance, well, land grant)
• Match map labels to the corresponding features
• Match the symbols on a map to the corresponding explanations in the legend
• Execute a well designed legend that facilitates map reading
• Explain how the anatomy of the eye and its visual sensor cells affect how one sees maps in terms of attention, acuity, focus, and color
• Explain how memory limitations effect map reading tasks