2018 QUARTER 03

A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P R S T U V W
CP-12 - Location-Based Services

Location-Based Services (LBS) are mobile applications that provide information depending on the location of the user. To make LBS work, different system components are needed, i.e., mobile devices, positioning, communication networks, and service and content provider. Almost every LBS application needs several key elements to handle the main tasks of positioning, data modeling, and information communication. With the rapid advances in mobile information technologies, LBS have become ubiquitous in our daily lives with many application fields, such as navigation and routing, social networking, entertainment, and healthcare. Several challenges also exist in the domain of LBS, among which privacy is a primary one. This topic introduces the key components and technologies, modeling, communication, applications, and the challenges of LBS.

DM-35 - Logical Data Models

A logical data model is created for the second of three levels of abstraction, conceptual, logical, and physical. A logical data model expresses the meaning context of a conceptual data model, and adds to that detail about data (base) structures, e.g. using topologically-organized records, relational tables, object-oriented classes, or extensible markup language (XML) construct  tags. However, the logical data model formed is independent of a particular database management software product. Nonetheless such a model is often constrained by a class of software language techniques for representation, making implementation with a physical data model easier. Complex entity types of the conceptual data model must be translated into sub-type/super-type hierarchies to clarify data contexts for the entity type, while avoiding duplication of concepts and data. Entities and records should have internal identifiers. Relationships can be used to express the involvement of entity types with activities or associations. A logical schema is formed from the above data organization. A schema diagram depicts the entity, attribute and relationship detail for each application. The resulting logical data models can be synthesized using schema integration to support multi-user database environments, e.g., data warehouses for strategic applications and/or federated databases for tactical/operational business applications.

KE-19 - Managing GIS operations and infrastructure
  • Calculate the estimated schedule required to carry out all of the implementation steps for an enterprise GIS of a given size
  • List some of the topics that should be addressed in a justification for implementing an enterprise GIS (e.g., return on investment, workflow, knowledge sharing)
  • Indicate the possible justifications that can be used to implement an enterprise GIS
  • Exemplify each component of a needs assessment for an enterprise GIS
  • Describe the components of a needs assessment for an enterprise GIS
DM-40 - Managing versioned geospatial databases
  • Describe an application in which it is crucial to maintain previous versions of the database
  • Describe existing algorithms designed for performing dynamic queries
  • Demonstrate how both the time criticality and the data security might determine whether one performs change detection on-line or off-line in a given scenario
  • Explain why the lack of a data librarian to manage data can have disastrous consequences on the resulting dataset
  • Produce viable queries for change scenarios using GIS or database management tools
AM-06 - Map algebra
  • Explain the categories of map algebra operations (i.e., local, focal, zonal, and global functions)
  • Explain why georegistration is a precondition to map algebra
  • Differentiate between map algebra and matrix algebra using real examples
  • Perform a map algebra calculation using command line, form-based, and flow charting user interfaces
  • Describe a real modeling situation in which map algebra would be used (e.g., site selection, climate classification, least-cost path)
  • Describe how map algebra performs mathematical functions on raster grids
CV-23 - Map analysis
  • Create a profile of a cross section through a terrain using a topographic map and a digital elevation model (DEM)
  • Measure point-feature movement and point-feature diffusion on maps
  • Describe maps that can be used to find direction, distance, or position, plan routes, calculate area or volume, or describe shape
  • Explain how maps can be used in determining an optimal route or facility selection
  • Explain how maps can be used in terrain analysis (e.g., elevation determination, surface profiles, slope, viewsheds, and gradient)
  • Explain how the types of distortion indicated by projection metadata on a map will affect map measurements
  • Explain the differences between true north, magnetic north, and grid north directional references
  • Compare and contrast the manual measurement of the areas of polygons on a map printed from a GIS with those calculated by the computer and discuss the implications these variations in measurement might have on map use
  • Determine feature counts of point, line, and area features on maps
  • Analyze spatial patterns of selected point, line, and area feature arrangements on maps
  • Calculate slope using a topographic map and a DEM
  • Calculate the planimetric and actual road distances between two locations on a topographic map
  • Plan an orienteering tour of a specific length that traverses slopes of an appropriate steepness and crosses streams in places that can be forded based on a topographic map
  • Describe the differences between azimuths, bearings, and other systems for indicating directions
CV-22 - Map interpretation
  • Identify the landforms represented by specific patterns in contours on a topographic map
  • Hypothesize about geographic processes by synthesizing the patterns found on one or more thematic maps or data visualizations
  • Match features on a map to corresponding features in the world
  • Compare and contrast the interpretation of landscape, geomorphic features, and human settlement types shown on a series of topographic maps from several different countries
DM-54 - Map projection classes
  • Explain the concepts “developable surface” and “reference globe” as ways of projecting the Earth’s surface
  • Explain the mathematical basis by which latitude and longitude locations are projected into x and y coordinate space
  • Illustrate the graticule configurations for “other” projection classes, such as polyconic, pseudocylindrical, etc.
  • Classify various map projection types according to the geometric properties preserved
  • Classify various map projection types by the three main classes of map projections based on developable surfaces
DM-55 - Map projection parameters
  • Explain how the concepts of the tangent and secant cases relate to the idea of a standard line
  • Implement a given map projection formula in a software program that reads geographic coordinates as input and produces projected (x, y) coordinates as output
  • Identify the parameters that allow one to focus a projection on an area of interest
  • Use GIS software to produce a graticule that matches a target graticule
  • Identify the possible “aspects” of a projection and describe the graticule’s appearance in each aspect
  • Define key terms such as “standard line,” “projection case,” and “latitude and longitude of origin”
DM-53 - Map projection properties
  • Describe the visual appearance of the Earth’s graticule
  • Discuss what a Tissot indicatrix represents and how it can be used to assess projection-induced error
  • Interpret a given a projected graticule, continent outlines, and indicatrixes at each graticule intersection in terms of geometric properties preserved and distorted
  • Illustrate distortion patterns associated with a given projection class
  • Recognize distortion patterns on a map based upon the graticule arrangement
  • Explain the kind of distortion that occurs when raster data are projected
  • Explain the rationale for the selection of the geometric property that is preserved in map projections used as the basis of the UTM and SPC systems
  • Recommend the map projection property that would be useful for various mapping applications, including parcel mapping, route mapping, etc., and justify your recommendations
  • Define the four geometric properties of the globe that may be preserved or lost in projected coordinates
  • Explain the concept of a “compromise” projection and for which purposes it is useful

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