## 2018 QUARTER 03

##### CV-06 - Map Projections

Map projection is the process of transforming angular (spherical / elliptical) coordinates into planar coordinates. All map projections introduce distortion (e.g., to areas, angles, distances) in the resulting planar coordinates. Understanding what, where, and how much distortion is introduced is an important consideration for spatial computations and visual interpretation of spatial patterns, as well as for general aesthetics of any map.

• Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using conventional symbols (e.g., blue=water, green=vegetation, Swiss cross=a hospital) on a map
• Find specified features on a topographic map (e.g., gravel pit, mine entrance, well, land grant)
• Match map labels to the corresponding features
• Match the symbols on a map to the corresponding explanations in the legend
• Execute a well designed legend that facilitates map reading
• Explain how the anatomy of the eye and its visual sensor cells affect how one sees maps in terms of attention, acuity, focus, and color
##### CV-17 - Mapping Time
• Describe how the adding time-series data reveals or does not reveal patterns not evident in a cross-sectional data
• Describe how an animated map reveals patterns not evident without animation
• Demonstrate how Bertin’s “graphic variables” can be extended to include animation effects
• Create a temporal sequence representing a dynamic geospatial process
##### AM-48 - Mathematical models of uncertainty: probability and statistics
• Devise simple ways to represent probability information in GIS
• Describe the basic principles of randomness and probability
• Compute descriptive statistics and geostatistics of geographic data
• Interpret descriptive statistics and geostatistics of geographic data
• Recognize the assumptions underlying probability and geostatistics and the situations in which they are useful analytical tools
##### DM-31 - Mathematical models of vagueness: Fuzzy sets and rough sets
• Compare and contrast the relative merits of fuzzy sets, rough sets, and other models
• Differentiate between fuzzy set membership and probabilistic set membership
• Explain the problems inherent in fuzzy sets
• Create appropriate membership functions to model vague phenomena
##### KE-17 - Measuring costs
• Explain how the saying “developing data is the largest single cost of implementing GIS” could be true for an organization that is already collecting data as part of its regular operations
• Describe some non-fiduciary barriers to GIS implementation
• Summarize what the literature suggests as means for overcoming some of the non-fiduciary barriers to GIS implementation
• Outline sources of additional costs associated with development of an enterprise GIS
• Outline the categories of costs that an organization should anticipate as it plans to design and implement a GIS
##### GS-08 - Mechanisms of control of geospatial information
• Distinguish among the various intellectual property rights, including copyright, patent, trademark, business methods, and other rights
• Explain how databases may be protected under U.S. copyright law
• Outline the intellectual property protection clause of a contract that a local government uses to license geospatial data to a community group
• Explain how maps may be protected under U.S. copyright law
• Differentiate geospatial information from other works protected under copyright law
##### DM-26 - Mereology: structural relationships
• Describe particular geographic phenomena in terms of their place in mereonomic hierarchies (parts and composites)
• Explain the contributions of formal mathematical methods such as graph theory to the study and application of geographic structures
• Represent structural relationships in GIS data
• Explain the effects of spatial or temporal scale on the perception of structure
• Explain the modeling of structural relationships in standard GIS data models, such as stored topology
• Identify phenomena that are best understood as networks
• Define “metadata” in the context of the geospatial data set
• Use a metadata utility to create a geospatial metadata document for a digital database you created
• Formulate metadata for a graphic output that would be distributed to the general public
• Formulate metadata for a geostatistical analysis that would be released to an experienced audience
• Compose data integrity statements for a geostatistical or spatial analysis to be included in graphic output
• Identify software tools available to support metadata creation
• Interpret the elements of an existing metadata document
• Explain why metadata production should be integrated into the data production and database development workflows, rather than treated as an ancillary activity
• Outline the elements of the U.S. geospatial metadata standard
• Explain the ways in which metadata increases the value of geospatial data
##### CV-25 - Metadata, Quality, and Uncertainty
• Describe a scenario in which possible errors in a map may impact subsequent decision making, such as a land use decision based on a soils map
• Evaluate the uncertainty inherent in a map
• Compare the decisions made using a map with a reliability overlay from those made using a map pair separating data and reliability, both drawn from the same dataset
• Critique the assumption that maps can or should be “accurate”