2019 QUARTER 04

DA-06 - Applications in state government
  • List and describe the types of data maintained by state governments
  • Explain how geospatial information might be used in a taking of private property through a government’s claim of its right of eminent domain
  • Describe how geospatial data are used and maintained for land use planning, property value assessment, maintenance of public works, and other applications
  • Explain the concept of a “spatial decision support system”
AM-62 - Approaches to point, line, and area generalization
  • Describe the basic forms of generalization used in applications in addition to cartography (e.g., selection, simplification)
  • Explain why areal generalization is more difficult than line simplification
  • Explain the logic of the Douglas-Poiker line simplification algorithm
  • Explain the pitfalls of using data generalized for small scale display in a large scale application
  • Design an experiment that allows one to evaluate the effect of traditional approaches of cartographic generalization on the quality of digital data sets created from analog originals
  • Evaluate various line simplification algorithms by their usefulness in different applications
  • Discuss the possible effects on topological integrity of generalizing data sets
DM-44 - Approximating the Earth's shape with geoids
  • Explain why gravity varies over the Earth’s surface
  • Explain how geoids are modeled
  • Explain the role that the U.S. National Geodetic Survey plays in maintaining and developing geoid models
  • Explain the concept of an equipotential gravity surface (i.e., a geoid)
FC-16 - Area and Region
  • List reasons why the area of a polygon calculated in a GIS might not be the same as the real world object it describes
  • Demonstrate how the area of a region calculated from a raster data set will vary by resolution and orientation
  • Outline an algorithm to find the area of a polygon using the coordinates of its vertices
  • Explain how variations in the calculation of area may have real world implications, such as calculating density
  • Delineate regions using properties, spatial relationships, and geospatial technologies
  • Exemplify regions found at different scales
  • Explain the relationship between regions and categories
  • Identify the kinds of phenomena commonly found at the boundaries of regions
  • Explain why general-purpose regions rarely exist
  • Differentiate among different types of regions, including functional, cultural, physical, administrative, and others
  • Compare and contrast the opportunities and pitfalls of using regions to aggregate geographic information (e.g., census data)
  • Use established analysis methods that are based on the concept of region (e.g., landscape ecology)
  • Explain the nature of the Modifiable Areal Unit Problem (MAUP)
DM-81 - Array Databases

Array Databases are a class of No-SQL databases that store, manage, and analyze data whose natural structures are arrays. With the growth of large volumes of spatial data (i.e., satellite imagery) there is a pressing need to have new ways to store and manipulate array data. Currently, there are several databases and platforms that have extended their initial architectures to support for multidimensional arrays. However, extending a platform to support a multidimensional array comes at a performance cost, when compared to Array Databases who specialize in the storage, retrieval, and processing of n-dimensional data.

CP-04 - Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence is the study of intelligence agents as demonstrated by machines. It is an interdisciplinary field involving computer science as well as, various kinds of engineering and science, for example, robotics, bio-medical engineering, that accentuates automation of human acts and intelligence through machines. AI represents state-of-the-art use of machines to bring about algorithmic computation and understanding of tasks that include learning, problem solving, mapping, perception, and reasoning. Given the data and a description of its properties and relations between objects of interest, AI methods can perform the aforementioned tasks. Widely applied AI capabilities, e.g. learning, are now achievable at large scale through machine learning (ML), large volumes of data and specialized computational machines. ML encompasses learning without any kind of supervision (unsupervised learning) and learning with full supervision (supervised learning). Widely applied supervised learning techniques include deep learning and other machine learning methods that require less data than deep learning e.g. support vector machines, random forests. Unsupervised learning examples include dictionary learning, independent component analysis, and autoencoders. For application tasks with less labeled data, both supervised and unsupervised techniques can be adapted in a semi-supervised manner to produce accurate models and to increase the size of the labeled training data.

AM-93 - Artificial Intelligence Approaches

Artificial Intelligence (AI) has received tremendous attention from academia, industry, and the general public in recent years. The integration of geography and AI, or GeoAI, provides novel approaches for addressing a variety of problems in the natural environment and our human society. This entry briefly reviews the recent development of AI with a focus on machine learning and deep learning approaches. We discuss the integration of AI with geography and particularly geographic information science, and present a number of GeoAI applications and possible future directions.