## 2020 QUARTER 04

##### AM-28 - Semi-variogram modeling
• List the possible sources of error in a selected and fitted model of an experimental semi-variogram
• Describe the conditions under which each of the commonly used semi-variograms models would be most appropriate
• Explain the necessity of defining a semi-variogram model for geographic data
• Apply the method of weighted least squares and maximum likelihood to fit semi-variogram models to datasets
• Describe some commonly used semi-variogram models
##### FC-11 - Set Theory

Basic mathematical set theory is presented and illustrated with a few examples from GIS. The focus is on set theory first, with subsequent interpretation in some GIS contexts ranging from story maps to municipal planning to language use. The breadth of interpretation represents not only the foundational universality of set theory within the broad realm of GIS but is also reflective of set theory's fundamental role in mathematics and its numerous applications. Beyond the conventional, the reader is taken to see glimpses of set theory not commonly experienced in the world of GIS and asked to imagine where else they might apply. Initial broad exposure leaves room for the mind to grow into deep and rich fields flung far across the globe of academia. Direction toward such paths is offered within the text and in additional resources, all designed to broaden the horizons of the open-minded reader.

##### FC-15 - Shape

Shape is important in GI Science because the shape of a geographical entity can have far-reaching effects on significant characteristics of that entity. In geography we are mainly concerned with two-dimensional shapes such as the outlines of islands, lakes, and administrative areas, but three-dimensional shapes may become important, for example in the treatment of landforms. Since the attribute of shape has infinitely many degrees of freedom, there can be no single numerical measure such that closely similar shapes are assigned close numerical values. Therefore different shape descriptors have been proposed for different purposes. Although it is generally desirable for a shape descriptor to be scale invariant and rotation invariant, not all proposed descriptors satisfy both these requirements. Some methods by which a shape is described using a single number are described, followed by a discussion of moment-based approaches. It is often useful to represent a complex shape by means of a surrogate shape of simpler form which facilitates storage, manipulation, and comparison between shapes; some examples of commonly used shape surrogates are presented. Another important task is to compare different shapes to determine how similar they are. The article concludes with a discussion of a number of such measures of similarity.

##### AM-84 - Simulation Modeling

Advances in computational capacity have enabled dynamic simulation modeling to become increasingly widespread in scientific research. As opposed to conceptual or physical models, simulation models enable numerical experimentation with alternative parametric assumptions for a given model design. Numerous design choices are made in model development that involve continuous or discrete representations of time and space. Simulation modeling approaches include system dynamics, discrete event simulation, agent-based modeling, and multi-method modeling. The model development process involves a shift from qualitative design to quantitative analysis upon implementation of a model in a computer program or software platform. Upon implementation, model analysis is performed through rigorous experimentation to test how model structure produces simulated patterns of behavior over time and space. Validation of a model through correspondence of simulated results with observed behavior facilitates its use as an analytical tool for evaluating strategies and policies that would alter system behavior.

##### GS-16 - Social critiques
• Explain the argument that, throughout history, maps have been used to depict social relations
• Explain the argument that GIS is “socially constructed”
• Describe the use of GIS from a political ecology point of view (e.g., consider the use of GIS for resource identification, conservation, and allocation by an NGO in Sub-Saharan Africa)
• Defend or refute the contention that critical studies have an identifiable influence on the development of the information society in general and GIScience in particular
• Discuss the production, maintenance, and use of geospatial data by a government agency or private firm from the perspectives of a taxpayer, a community organization, and a member of a minority group
• Explain how a tax assessor’s office adoption of GIS&T may affect power relations within a community
##### CP-10 - Social Media Analytics

Social media streams have emerged as new sources to support various geospatial applications. However, traditional geospatial tools and systems lack the capacities to process such data streams, which are generated dynamically in extremely large volumes and with versatile contents. Therefore, innovative approaches and frameworks should be developed to detect an emerging event discussed over the social media, understand the extent, consequences of the event, as well as it time-evolving nature, and eventually discover useful patterns. In order to harness social media for geospatial applications, this entry introduces social media analytics technologies for harvesting, managing, mining, analyzing and visualizing the spatial, temporal, text, and network information of social media data.

##### DC-04 - Social Media Platforms

Social media is a group of interactive Web 2.0 Internet-based applications that allow users to create and exchange user-generated content via virtual communities. Social media platforms have a large user population who generate massive amounts of digital footprints, which are valuable data sources for observing and analyzing human activities/behavior. This entry focuses on social media platforms that provide spatial information in different forms for Geographic Information Systems and Technology (GIS&T) research. These social media platforms can be grouped into six categories: microblogging sites, social networking sites, content sharing sites, product and service review sites, collaborative knowledge sharing sites, and others. Four methods are available for capturing data from social media platforms, including Web Application Programming Interfaces (Web APIs), Web scraping, digital participant recruitment, and direct data purchasing. This entry first overviews the history, opportunities, and challenges related to social media platforms. Each category of social media platforms is then introduced in detail, including platform features, well-known platform examples, and data capturing processes.

##### CP-21 - Social Networks

This entry introduces the concept of a social network (SN), its components, and how to weight those components. It also describes some spatial properties of SNs, and how to embed SNs into GIS. SNs are graph structures that consists of nodes and edges that traditionally exist in Sociology and are newer to GIScience. Nodes typically represent individual entities such as people or institutions, and edges represent interpersonal relationships, connections or ties. Many different mathematical metrics exist to characterize nodes, edges and the larger network. When geolocated, SNs are part of a class of spatial networks, more specifically, geographic networks (i.e. road networks, hydrological networks), that require special treatment because edges are non-planar, that is, they do not follow infrastructure or form a vector on the earth’s surface. Future research in this area is likely to take advantage of 21st Century datasets sourced from social media, GPS, wireless signals, and online interactions that each evidence geolocated personal relationships.

##### CP-01 - Software systems
• Describe the major geospatial software architectures available currently, including desktop GIS, server-based, Internet, and component-based custom applications
• Describe non-spatial software that can be used in geospatial applications, such as databases, Web services, and programming environments
• Compare and contrast the primary sources of geospatial software, including major and minor commercial vendors and open-source options
• List the major functionality needed from off-the-shelf software based on a requirements report
• Identify software options that meet functionality needs for a given task or enterprise
• Evaluate software options that meet functionality needs for a given task or enterprise
##### FC-07 - Space
• Differentiate between absolute and relative descriptions of location
• Define the four basic dimensions or shapes used to describe spatial objects (i.e., points, lines, regions, volumes)
• Discuss the contributions that different perspectives on the nature of space bring to an understanding of geographic phenomenon
• Justify the discrepancies between the nature of locations in the real world and representations thereof (e.g., towns as points)
• Select appropriate spatial metaphors and models of phenomena to be represented in GIS
• Develop methods for representing non-cartesian models of space in GIS
• Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the use of cartesian/metric space as a basis for GIS and related technologies
• Differentiate between common-sense, Cartesian/metric, relational, relativistic, phenomenological, social constructivist, and other theories of the nature of space