## 2021 QUARTER 01

##### AM-56 - Impacts of transformations
• Compare and contrast the impacts of different conversion approaches, including the effect on spatial components
• Create a flowchart showing the sequence of transformations on a data set (e.g., geometric and radiometric correction and mosaicking of remotely sensed data)
• Prioritize a set of algorithms designed to perform transformations based on the need to maintain data integrity (e.g., converting a digital elevation model into a TIN)
##### GS-22 - Implications of distributed GIS&T
• Describe the advantages and disadvantages to an organization in using GIS portal information from other organizations
• Describe how inter-organization GIS portals may impact or influence issues related to social equity, privacy and data access
• Discuss how distributed GIS&T may affect the nature of organizations and relationships among institutions
• Suggest the possible societal and ethical implications of distributed GIS&T
##### PD-02 - Integer programming
• Explain why integer programs are harder to solve than linear programs
• Differentiate between a linear program and an integer program
##### AM-16 - Interpolation methods
• Identify the spatial concepts that are assumed in different interpolation algorithms
• Compare and contrast interpolation by inverse distance weighting, bi-cubic spline fitting, and kriging
• Differentiate between trend surface analysis and deterministic spatial interpolation
• Explain why different interpolation algorithms produce different results and suggest ways by which these can be evaluated in the context of a specific problem
• Design an algorithm that interpolates irregular point elevation data onto a regular grid
• Outline algorithms to produce repeatable contour-type lines from point datasets using proximity polygons, spatial averages, or inverse distance weighting
• Implement a trend surface analysis using either the supplied function in a GIS or a regression function from any standard statistical package
• Describe how surfaces can be interpolated using splines
• Explain how the elevation values in a digital elevation model (DEM) are derived by interpolation from irregular arrays of spot elevations
• Discuss the pitfalls of using secondary data that has been generated using interpolations (e.g., Level 1 USGS DEMs)
• Estimate a value between two known values using linear interpolation (e.g., spot elevations, population between census years)
##### AM-17 - Intervisibility
• Define “intervisibility”
• Outline an algorithm to determine the viewshed (area visible) from specific locations on surfaces specified by DEMs
• Perform siting analyses using specified visibility, slope, and other surface related constraints
• Explain the sources and impact of errors that affect intervisibility analyses