## 2021 QUARTER 01

##### FC-14 - Distance, Length, and Direction
• Describe several different measures of distance between two points (e.g., Euclidean, Manhattan, network distance, spherical)
• Explain how different measures of distance can be used to calculate the spatial weights matrix
• Explain why estimating the fractal dimension of a sinuous line has important implications for the measurement of its length
• Explain how fractal dimension can be used in practical applications of GIS
• Explain the differences in the calculated distance between the same two places when data used are in different projections
• Outline the implications of differences in distance calculations on real world applications of GIS, such as routing and determining boundary lengths and service areas
• Estimate the fractal dimension of a sinuous line
• Describe operations that can be performed on qualitative representations of direction
• Explain any differences in the measured direction between two places when the data are presented in a GIS in different projections
• Compute the mean of directional data
• Compare and contrast how direction is determined and stated in raster and vector data
• Define “direction” and its measurement in different angular measures
##### GS-09 - Enforcing control
• Explain the concept of “fair use” with regard to geospatial information
• Describe defenses against various claims of copyright infringement
• Discuss ways in which copyright infringements may be remedied
• Identify types of copyright infringement
##### CP-29 - Enterprise GIS

Enterprise GIS is the implementation of GIS infrastructure, processes and tools at scale within the context of an organization, shaped by the prevailing information technology patterns of the day. It can be framed as an infrastructure enabling a set of capabilities, and a process for establishing and maintaining that infrastructure. Enterprise GIS facilitates the storage, sharing and dissemination of geospatial information products (data, maps, apps) within an organization and beyond. Enterprise GIS is integrated into, and shaped by the business processes, culture and context of an organization. Enterprise GIS implementations require general-purpose IT knowledge in the areas of performance tuning, information security, maintenance, interoperability, and data governance. The specific enabling technologies of Enterprise GIS will change with time, but currently the prevailing pattern is a multi-tiered services-oriented architecture supporting delivery of GIS capabilities on the web, democratizing access to and use of geospatial information products.

##### GS-13 - Epistemological critiques

As GIS became a firmly established presence in geography and catalysed the emergence of GIScience, it became the target of a series of critiques regarding modes of knowledge production that were perceived as problematic. The first wave of critiques charged GIS with resuscitating logical positivism and its erroneous treatment of social phenomena as indistinguishable from natural/physical phenomena. The second wave of critiques objected to GIS on the basis that it was a representational technology. In the third wave of critiques, rather than objecting to GIS simply because it represented, scholars engaged with the ways in which GIS represents natural and social phenomena, pointing to the masculinist and heteronormative modes of knowledge production that are bound up in some, but not all, uses and applications of geographic information technologies. In response to these critiques, GIScience scholars and theorists positioned GIS as a critically realist technology by virtue of its commitment to the contingency of representation and its non-universal claims to knowledge production in geography. Contemporary engagements of GIS epistemologies emphasize the epistemological flexibility of geospatial technologies.

##### FC-02 - Epistemology

Epistemology is the lens through which we view reality. Different epistemologies interpret the earth and patterns on its surface differently. In effect, epistemology is a belief system about the nature of reality that, in turn, structures our interpretation of the world. Common epistemologies in GIScience include (but are not limited by) positivism and realism. However, many researchers are in effect pragmatists in that they choose the filter that best supports their work and a priori hypotheses. Different epistemologies – or ways of knowing and studying geography – result in different ontologies or classification systems. By understanding the role of epistemology, we can better understand different ways of representing the same phenomena.

##### FC-25 - Error
• Compare and contrast how systematic errors and random errors affect measurement of distance
• Describe the causes of at least five different types of errors (e.g., positional, attribute, temporal, logical inconsistency, and incompleteness)
##### DM-32 - Error-based uncertainty
• Define uncertainty-related terms, such as error, accuracy, uncertainty, precision, stochastic, probabilistic, deterministic, and random
• Recognize expressions of uncertainty in language
• Evaluate the causes of uncertainty in geospatial data
• Describe a stochastic error model for a natural phenomenon
• Explain how the familiar concepts of geographic objects and fields affect the conceptualization of uncertainty
• Recognize the degree to which the importance of uncertainty depends on scale and application
• Differentiate uncertainty in geospatial situations from vagueness
##### CP-26 - eScience, the Evolution of Science

Science—and research more broadly—face many challenges as its practitioners struggle to accommodate new challenges around reproducibility and openness.  The current practice of science limits access to knowledge, information and infrastructure, which in turn leads to inefficiencies, frustrations and a lack of rigor.  Many useful research outcomes are never used because they are too difficult to find, or to access, or to understand.

New computational methods and infrastructure provide opportunities to reconceptualize how science is conducted, how it is shared, how it is evaluated and how it is reused.  And new data sources changed what can be known, and how well, and how frequently.  This article describes some of the major themes of eScience/eResearch aimed at improving the process of doing science.

##### FC-36 - Events and Processes
• Compare and contrast the concepts of continuants (entities) and occurrents (events)
• Describe the “actor” role that entities and fields play in events and processes
• Discuss the difficulty of integrating process models into GIS software based on the entity and field views, and methods used to do so
• Apply or develop formal systems for describing continuous spatio-temporal processes
• Evaluate the assertion that “events and processes are the same thing, but viewed at different temporal scales”
• Describe particular events or processes in terms of identity, categories, attributes, and locations
• Compare and contrast the concepts of event and process
##### DM-69 - Exchange specifications
• Describe the characteristics of the Geography Markup Language (GML)
• Explain the purpose, history, and status of the Spatial Data Transfer Standard (SDTS)
• Identify different levels of information integration
• Identify the level of integration at which the Geography Markup Language (GML) operates
• Describe the geospatial elements of Earth science data exchange specifications, such as the Ecological Metadata Language (EML), Earth Science Markup Language (ESML), and Climate Science Modeling Language (CSML)
• Import data packaged in a standard transfer format to a GIS software package
• Export data from a GIS program to a standard exchange format