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- Explain the notions of model and representation in science
- Identify the epistemological assumptions underlying the work of colleagues
- Bridge the differences in epistemological viewpoints to enable work with diverse colleagues
- Define common theories on what constitutes knowledge, including positivism, reflectance-correspondence, pragmatism, social constructivism, and memetics
- Justify the epistemological frameworks with which you agree
- Recognize the influences of epistemology on GIS practices
- Compare and contrast the ability of various theories to explain different situations