Location-Based Services (LBS) are mobile applications that provide information depending on the location of the user. To make LBS work, different system components are needed, i.e., mobile devices, positioning, communication networks, and service and content provider. Almost every LBS application needs several key elements to handle the main tasks of positioning, data modeling, and information communication. With the rapid advances in mobile information technologies, LBS have become ubiquitous in our daily lives with many application fields, such as navigation and routing, social networking, entertainment, and healthcare. Several challenges also exist in the domain of LBS, among which privacy is a primary one. This topic introduces the key components and technologies, modeling, communication, applications, and the challenges of LBS.
Computing Platforms provide the computational capabilities to apply methods and models to geographic data. Computing Platforms vary in capability, price, and availability from mobile devices to advanced supercomputers and from standalone computers to complex networked infrastructures to address different user needs and data-processing workloads.
Topics in this Knowledge Area are listed thematically below. Existing topics are in regular font and linked directly to their original entries (published in 2006; these contain only Learning Objectives). Entries that have been updated and expanded are in bold. Forthcoming, future topics are italicized.
|Computing Infrastructures||Software Systems|
|Graphics Processing Units||Spatial Database Management Systems (DBMS)|
|Spatial Cloud Computing||Spatial MapReduce|
|Mobile Devices||Artificial Intelligence Tools and Platforms for GIS|
|Cyberinfrastructure||Geospatial Technology Transfer|
|eScience, the Evolution of Science||Web GIS|
|Computing Approaches||Enterprise GIS|
|Origins of Computing & GIS&T: a Computer Systems Perspective|
|Origins of Computing & GIS&T: a Perspective on the Role of Peripheral Devices||Examples and Applications|
|High Throughput Computing and GIS||Google Earth Engine|
|High Performance Computing and GIS||ArcGIS Online|
|Science Gateways||GIS&T and Computational Notebooks|
|Social Media and Location-based Services|
|GIS& the Internet of Things|
|Social Media Analytics|
|GIS&T Web Services|