GIS implementations in the late-1960s to mid-1980s required the use of exotic peripheral devices to encode and display geospatial information. Data encoding was normally performed in one of two modes: automated raster scanning and manual (vector) coordinate recording. Raster scanning systems in this era were extremely expensive, operated in batch mode, and were located at a limited number of centralized facilities, such as federal mapping agencies. Coordinate digitizers were more widely distributed and were often configured with dedicated minicomputers to handle editing and formatting tasks. Data display devices produced hardcopy and softcopy output. Two commonly encountered hardcopy devices were line printers and pen plotters. Softcopy display consisted of cathode ray tube devices that operated using frame buffer and storage tube technologies. Each device was driven by specialized software provided by device manufacturers, leading to widespread hardware-software incompatibly. This problem led to the emergence of device independence to promote increased levels of interoperability among disparate input and output devices.
Computing Platforms provide the computational capabilities to apply methods and models to geographic data. Computing Platforms vary in capability, price, and availability from mobile devices to advanced supercomputers and from standalone computers to complex networked infrastructures to address different user needs and data-processing workloads.
Topics in this Knowledge Area are listed thematically below. Existing topics are in regular font and linked directly to their original entries (published in 2006; these contain only Learning Objectives). Entries that have been updated and expanded are in bold. Forthcoming, future topics are italicized.
|Computing Infrastructures:||Software Systems:|
|Graphics Processing Units||Spatial Database Management Systems (DBMS)|
|The Cloud||Spatial MapReduce|
|Mobile Devices||Artificial Intelligence Tools and Platforms for GIS|
|Computing Approaches:||Enterprise GIS|
|Origins of Computing & GIS&T: a Computer Systems Perspective||Geospatial Technology Transfer Opportunities|
|Origins of Computing & GIS&T: a Perspective on the Role of Peripheral Devices||Examples and Applications:|
|High Throughput Computing and GIS||Google Earth Engine|
|High Performance Computing and GIS||ArcGIS Online|
|Grid Computing||Jupyter Notebooks|
|Pervasive/Ubiquitous Computing||Amazon Web Services|
|Science Gateways||Apache Spark|
|Networks and Services:|
|Internet of Things|
|Social Media Analytics|