The use of historical maps in coordination with GIS aids scholars who are approaching a geographical study in which an historical approach is required or is interested in the geographical relationships between different historical representations of the landscape in cartographic document. Historical maps allow the comparison of spatial relationships of past phenomena and their evolution over time and permit both qualitative and quantitative diachronic analysis. In this chapter, an explanation of the use of historical maps in GIS for the study of landscape and environment is offered. After a short theoretical introduction on the meaning of the term “historical map,” the reader will find the key steps in using historic maps in a GIS, a brief overview on the challenges in interpretation of historical maps, and some example applications.
The capture of massive quantities of spatial data, able to be distributed and shared in real time, provide for an ever-increasing range of environmental and societal applications. Data capture includes the principles, methods, technologies, applications, and institutional/programmatic aspects of spatial data acquisition. Sources of data include global navigation satellite systems, satellite and aerial sensing, field surveys, land records, socioeconomic data (e.g., census), volunteered geographic information, wireless sensor networks, and unmanned aerial systems.
Topics in this Knowledge Area are listed thematically below. Existing topics are in regular font and linked directly to their original entries (published in 2006; these contain only Learning Objectives). Entries that have been updated and expanded are in bold. Forthcoming, future topics are italicized.
|History & Trends||Processing Remotely-Sensed Data|
|Changes in Data Capture Methods Over Time||Image Interpretation: Aerial Photography & Satellites|
|Georeferencing and Georectification||Feature Extraction in Satellite Imagery|
|Digital Data Sources & Capture Methods||Ground Verification and Accuracy Assessment|
|Historical (Paper) Maps||Spectral Properties of Terrestrial Surfaces|
|Global Navigation Satellite Systems||Structure from Motion Photogrammetry|
|Mobile Applications||GIS and Surveying|
|Aerial Photography: History & Georeferencing||Professional Land Surveying|
|Ground or Street-Level Imagery||Land records|
|Social Media Platforms||Ocean Surveying|
|Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI)||Field Data Collection|
|Remote Sensing Platforms & Sensors||Sampling: Size Selection, Sample Types, Intervals|
|Remote Sensing Platforms overview||Field Data Capture Technologies|
|Nature of multispectral image data||U.S. Census Data|
|Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS)||Data Coordinating Organizations|
|Landsat||Multi-Organizational GIS Coordination|
|Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)||Federal Agencies & National Organizations and Programs|
|Indoor LiDAR Scanning||International Organizations & Programs|
|Radar, Sonar, and Echolocation|
|Airborne LiDAR Bathymetry|