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AM-94 - Machine Learning Approaches

Machine learning approaches are increasingly used across numerous applications in order to learn from data and generate new knowledge discoveries, advance scientific studies and support automated decision making. In this knowledge entry, the fundamentals of Machine Learning (ML) are introduced, focusing on how feature spaces, models and algorithms are being developed and applied in geospatial studies. An example of a ML workflow for supervised/unsupervised learning is also introduced. The main challenges in ML approaches and our vision for future work are discussed at the end.

CP-04 - Artificial Intelligence Tools and Platforms for GIS

Artificial intelligence is the study of intelligence agents as demonstrated by machines. It is an interdisciplinary field involving computer science as well as, various kinds of engineering and science, for example, robotics, bio-medical engineering, that accentuates automation of human acts and intelligence through machines. AI represents state-of-the-art use of machines to bring about algorithmic computation and understanding of tasks that include learning, problem solving, mapping, perception, and reasoning. Given the data and a description of its properties and relations between objects of interest, AI methods can perform the aforementioned tasks. Widely applied AI capabilities, e.g. learning, are now achievable at large scale through machine learning (ML), large volumes of data and specialized computational machines. ML encompasses learning without any kind of supervision (unsupervised learning) and learning with full supervision (supervised learning). Widely applied supervised learning techniques include deep learning and other machine learning methods that require less data than deep learning e.g. support vector machines, random forests. Unsupervised learning examples include dictionary learning, independent component analysis, and autoencoders. For application tasks with less labeled data, both supervised and unsupervised techniques can be adapted in a semi-supervised manner to produce accurate models and to increase the size of the labeled training data.