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##### DM-59 - Data warehouses

- Differentiate between a data warehouse and a database
- Describe the functions that gazetteers support
- Differentiate the retrieval mechanisms of data warehouses and databases
- Discuss the appropriate use of a data warehouse versus a database

##### DM-56 - Georegistration

- Differentiate rectification and orthorectification
- Identify and explain an equation used to perform image-to-map registration
- Identify and explain an equation used to perform image-to-image registration
- Use GIS software to transform a given dataset to a specified coordinate system, projection, and datum
- Explain the role and selection criteria for “ground control points” (GCPs) in the georegistration of aerial imagery

##### DM-21 - Modeling three-dimensional (3-D) entities

- Identify GIS application domains in which true 3-D models of natural phenomena are necessary
- Illustrate the use of Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) to model landscapes in 3-D
- Explain how octatrees are the 3-D extension of quadtrees
- Explain how voxels and stack-unit maps that show the topography of a series of geologic layers might be considered 3-D extensions of field and vector representations respectively
- Explain how 3-D models can be extended to additional dimensions
- Explain the use of multi-patching to represent 3-D objects
- Explain the difficulties in creating true 3-D objects in a vector or raster format
- Differentiate between 21/2-D representations and true 3-D models

##### DM-41 - Fuzzy logic

- Describe how linear functions are used to fuzzify input data (i.e., mapping domain values to linguistic variables)
- Support or refute the statement by Lotfi Zadeh, that “As complexity rises, precise statements lose meaning and meaningful statements lose precision,” as it relates to GIS&T
- Explain why fuzzy logic, rather then Boolean algebra models, can be useful for representing real world boundaries between different tree species

##### DM-28 - Topological relationships

- Define various terms used to describe topological relationships, such as disjoint, overlap, within, and intersect
- List the possible topological relationships between entities in space (e.g., 9-intersection) and time
- Use methods that analyze topological relationships
- Recognize the contributions of topology (the branch of mathematics) to the study of geographic relationships
- Describe geographic phenomena in terms of their topological relationships in space and time to other phenomena

##### DM-15 - The network model

- Define the following terms pertaining to a network: Loops, multiple edges, the degree of a vertex, walk, trail, path, cycle, fundamental cycle
- List definitions of networks that apply to specific applications or industries
- Create an adjacency table from a sample network
- Explain how a graph can be written as an adjacency matrix and how this can be used to calculate topological shortest paths in the graph
- Create an incidence matrix from a sample network
- Explain how a graph (network) may be directed or undirected
- Demonstrate how attributes of networks can be used to represent cost, time, distance, or many other measures
- Demonstrate how the star (or forward star) data structure, which is often employed when digitally storing network information, violates relational normal form, but allows for much faster search and retrieval in network databases
- Discuss some of the difficulties of applying the standard process-pattern concept to lines and networks
- Demonstrate how a network is a connected set of edges and vertices

##### DM-62 - Database administration

- Describe how using standards can affect implementation of a GIS
- Explain how validation and verification processes can be used to maintain database integrity
- Summarize how data access processes can be a factor in development of an enterprise GIS implementation
- Describe effective methods to get stakeholders to create, adopt, or develop and maintain metadata for shared datasets

##### KE-28 - Publications

- Describe the leading academic journals serving the GIS&T community
- Select association and for-profit journals that are useful to entities managing enterprise GISs
- Select and describe the leading trade journals serving the GIS&T community
- Develop a bibliography of scholarly and professional articles and/or books that are relevant to a particular GIS&T project

##### DM-03 - Relational DBMS

- Explain the advantage of the relational model over earlier database structures including spreadsheets
- Define the basic terms used in relational database management systems (e.g., tuple, relation, foreign key, SQL, relational join)
- Discuss the efficiency and costs of normalization
- Describe the entity-relationship diagram approach to data modeling
- Explain how entity-relationship diagrams are translated into relational tables
- Create an SQL query that extracts data from related tables
- Describe the problems associated with failure to follow the first and second normal forms (including data confusion, redundancy, and retrieval difficulties)
- Demonstrate how search and relational join operations provide results for a typical GIS query and other simple operations using the relational DBMS within a GIS software application

## DM-48 - Plane coordinate systems