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GS-16 - Social critiques
  • Explain the argument that, throughout history, maps have been used to depict social relations
  • Explain the argument that GIS is “socially constructed”
  • Describe the use of GIS from a political ecology point of view (e.g., consider the use of GIS for resource identification, conservation, and allocation by an NGO in Sub-Saharan Africa)
  • Defend or refute the contention that critical studies have an identifiable influence on the development of the information society in general and GIScience in particular
  • Discuss the production, maintenance, and use of geospatial data by a government agency or private firm from the perspectives of a taxpayer, a community organization, and a member of a minority group
  • Explain how a tax assessor’s office adoption of GIS&T may affect power relations within a community
GS-06 - Public participation GIS
  • Critique the assertion that public participation GIS promotes democracy
  • Explain how community organizations’ use of geospatial technologies can alter existing community power relations
  • Explain how geospatial technologies can assist community organizations at each rung of the ladder of public participation
  • Explain the challenge of representing within current GIS software local knowledge that is neither easily mapped nor verified
  • Discuss advantages and disadvantages of six models of GIS availability, including communitybased GIS, university-community partnerships, GIS facilities in universities and public libraries, “Map rooms,” Internet map servers, and neighborhood GIS centers.
  • Explain why some community organizations may encounter more difficulty than others in acquiring geospatial data from public and private organizations
DC-22 - Federal agencies and national and international organizations and programs
  • Describe the data programs provided by organizations such as The National Map, GeoSpatial One Stop, and National Integrated Land System
  • Discuss the mission, history, constituencies, and activities of international organizations such as Association of Geographic Information Laboratories for Europe (AGILE) and the European GIS Education Seminar (EUGISES)
  • Discuss the mission, history, constituencies, and activities of governmental entities such as the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as they related to support of professionals and organizations
  • involved in GIS&T
  • Discuss the mission, history, constituencies, and activities of GeoSpatial One Stop
  • Discuss the mission, history, constituencies, and activities of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), Inc.
  • Discuss the mission, history, constituencies, and activities of the Nation Integrated Land System (NILS)
  • Discuss the mission, history, constituencies, and activities of the Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC)
  • Discuss the mission, history, constituencies, and activities of the National Academies of Science Mapping Science Committee
  • Discuss the mission, history, constituencies, and activities of the USGS and its National Map vision
  • Discuss the mission, history, constituencies, and activities of University Consortium of Geographic Information Science (UCGIS) and the National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis (NCGIA)
  • Discuss the political, cultural, economic, and geographic characteristics of various countries that influence their adoption and use of GIS&T
  • Identify National Science Foundation (NSF) programs that support GIS&T research and education
  • Outline the principle concepts and goals of the “digital earth” vision articulated in 1998 by Vice President Al Gore
  • Assess the current status of Gore’s “digital earth”
GS-17 - Common-sense geographies
  • Identify common-sense views of geographic phenomena that sharply contrast with established theories and technologies of geographic information
  • Differentiate applications that can make use of common-sense principles of geography from those that should not
  • Collaborate with non-GIS experts who use GIS to design applications that match commonsense understanding to an appropriate degree
  • Effectively communicate the design, procedures, and results of GIS projects to non-GIS audiences (clients, managers, general public)
  • Evaluate the impact of geospatial technologies (e.g., Google Earth) that allow non-geospatial professionals to create, distribute, and map geographic information
GS-08 - Mechanisms of control of geospatial information
  • Distinguish among the various intellectual property rights, including copyright, patent, trademark, business methods, and other rights
  • Explain how databases may be protected under U.S. copyright law
  • Describe advantages and disadvantages of “open” alternatives to copyright protection, such as the Creative Commons
  • Outline the intellectual property protection clause of a contract that a local government uses to license geospatial data to a community group
  • Explain how maps may be protected under U.S. copyright law
  • Differentiate geospatial information from other works protected under copyright law
GS-18 - Cultural influences
  • Collaborate effectively with colleagues of differing social backgrounds in developing balanced GIS applications
  • Describe the ways in which the elements of culture (e.g., language, religion, education, traditions) may influence the understanding and use of geographic information
  • Recognize the impact of one’s social background on one’s own geographic worldview and perceptions and how it influences one’s use of GIS
DC-09 - Field data technologies
  • Identify the measurement framework that applies to moving object tracking
  • Explain the advantage of real-time kinematic GPS in field data collection
  • Describe an application of hand-held computing or personal digital assistants (PDAs) for field data collection
  • Considering the measurement framework applied to moving object tracking, identify which of the dimensions of location, attribute, and time is fixed, which is controlled, and which is measured
  • Describe a real or hypothetical application of a sensor network in field data collection
  • Outline a combination of positioning techniques that can be used to support location-based services in a given environment
DC-21 - Spatial data sharing among organizations
  • Describe the rationale for and against sharing data among organizations
  • Describe the barriers to information sharing
  • Describe methods used by organizations to facilitate data sharing
DC-02 - Land records
  • Distinguish between GIS, LIS, and CAD/CAM in the context of land records management
  • Evaluate the difference in accuracy requirements for deeds systems versus registration systems
  • Exemplify and compare deed descriptions in terms of how accurately they convey the geometry of a parcel
  • Distinguish between topological fidelity and geometric accuracy in the context of a plat map
GS-03 - Liability
  • Describe the nature of tort law generally and nuisance law specifically
  • Describe strategies for managing liability risk, including disclaimers and data quality standards
  • Describe cases of liability claims associated with misuse of geospatial information, erroneous information, and loss of proprietary interests
  • Differentiate among contract liability, tort liability, and statutory liability

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