DM-62 - Database Administration
Organizations with a responsibility for maintaining large-scale, multi-user spatial databases often turn to server-based relational database management systems to achieve their goals. The administration of such databases has many dimensions. Industry standards in the areas of data storage and services should be researched and applied to ensure a sound, comprehensive database design as well as to promote interoperability with external entities. Data validation tools should be implemented to improve the accuracy and efficiency of data maintenance activities. Metadata should be maintained according to industry standards to protect the organization’s investment in data and to increase the likelihood of the data being located by clearinghouse and portal search tools. Database security strategies can prevent unauthorized access to data and lessen the chances of data loss due to accidental data corruption. Database performance should be monitored and strategies implemented to ensure that data can be retrieved from the system with acceptable response times. Finally, trends in the field such as the increasing need to manage large volumes of data call for spatial database managers to be knowledgeable of non-relational data models as well, such as NoSQL data models.
DM-66 - Spatial Indexing
A spatial index is a data structure that allows for accessing a spatial object efficiently. It is a common technique used by spatial databases. Without indexing, any search for a feature would require a "sequential scan" of every record in the database, resulting in much longer processing time. In a spatial index construction process, the minimum bounding rectangle serves as an object approximation. Various types of spatial indices across commercial and open-source databases yield measurable performance differences. Spatial indexing techniques are playing a central role in time-critical applications and the manipulation of spatial big data.