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##### AM-87 - Problems of currency, source, and scale
• Describe the problem of conflation associated with aggregation of data collected at different times, from different sources, and to different scales and accuracy requirements
• Explain how geostatistical techniques might be used to address such problems
##### AM-86 - Theory of error propagation
• Describe stochastic error models
• Exemplify stochastic error models used in GIScience
##### AM-13 - Multi-criteria evaluation
• Describe the implementation of an ordered weighting scheme in a multiple-criteria aggregation
• Compare and contrast the terms multi-criteria evaluation, weighted linear combination, and site suitability analysis
• Differentiate between contributing factors and constraints in a multi-criteria application
• Explain the legacy of multi-criteria evaluation in relation to cartographic modeling
• Determine which method to use to combine criteria (e.g., linear, multiplication)
• Create initial weights using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP)
• Calibrate a linear combination model by adjusting weights using a test data set
##### AM-64 - Calculating surface derivatives
• List the likely sources of error in slope and aspect maps derived from digital elevation models (DEMs) and state the circumstances under which these can be very severe
• Outline how higher order derivatives of height can be interpreted
• Explain how slope and aspect can be represented as the vector field given by the first derivative of height
• Explain why the properties of spatial continuity are characteristic of spatial surfaces
• Explain why zero slopes are indicative of surface specific points such as peaks, pits, and passes, and list the conditions necessary for each
• Design an algorithm that calculates slope and aspect from a triangulated irregular network (TIN) model
• Outline a number of different methods for calculating slope from a DEM