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DA-25 - Geospatial Intelligence and National Security

GIS&T exists within the national security enterprise as a multidisciplinary field that is now commonly referred to as Geospatial Intelligence (GEOINT).  U.S. GEOINT operations are principally managed by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA). GEOINT is one among several types of intelligence produced in support of national security, along with Human Intelligence (HUMINT), Signals Intelligence (SIGINT), Measurement and Signatures Intelligence (MASINT), and Open Source Intelligence (OSINT). Primary technical GEOINT skill areas include remote sensing, GIS, data management, and data visualization. The intelligence tradecraft is historically characterized as a process involving tasking, collection, processing, exploitation, and dissemination (TCPED), and supports decision-making for military, defense, and intelligence operations. The GEOINT enterprise utilizes every type of data collection platform, sensor, and imagery to develop intelligence reports. GEOINT products are used to support situational awareness, safety of navigation, arms control treaty monitoring, natural disaster response, and humanitarian relief operations. Geospatial analysts employed in government positions by NGA or serving in the U.S. armed forces are required to qualify in NGA’s GEOINT Professional Certification (GPC) program, and industry contractors have the option of qualifying under the United States Geospatial Intelligence Foundation (USGIF) Certified GEOINT Professional (CGP) program.

DA-09 - GIS&T and Geodesign

Geodesign leverages GIS&T to allow collaborations that result in geographically specific, adaptive and resilient solutions to complex problems across scales of the built and natural environment. Geodesign is rooted in decades of research and practice. Building on that history, is a contemporary approach that embraces the latest in GIS&T, visualization, and social science, all of which is organized around a unique framework process involving six models. More than just technology or GIS, Geodesign is a way of thinking when faced with complicated spatial issues that need systematic, creative, and integrative solutions.  Geodesign holds great promise for addressing the complexity of interrelated issues associated with growth and landscape change. Geodesign empowers through design combined with data and analytics to shape our environments and create desired futures.

DA-30 - GIS&T and Landscape Ecology

Landscape ecology is a transdisciplinary science dedicated to the study of the interactions among landscape heterogeneity, humans, and natural system. Since its inception in the mid-20th Century, landscape ecology has been strongly intertwined with spatial technologies, from aerial photography to modern space-borne sensors. Satellite-based remote sensing is among the primary data sources for contemporary landscape ecology analysis, while geographic information systems provide tools to analyze the spatial configurations of satellite derived classifications, simulate landscapes and species distributions, quantify landscape change, and elucidate the reciprocal relationship between spatial patterns and ecological processes. Additionally, global navigation satellite systems, such as GPS, Galileo, and GLONASS, augment these datasets and may be used for data collection to aid landscape ecology research. Emerging geospatial technologies, such as unoccupied aerial systems and micro- and nanosatellites, also have a role to play in landscape ecology.

DA-35 - GIS&T and Public Health

Contemporary environmental problems, global climate change, globalization, and urbanization have imposed severe impacts on human health. Meanwhile, disparity became a major concern in healthcare policy making and resource allocation. Within this context, GIS have been rapidly expanding and deepening their applications in the domain of public health. GIS applications in public health can be classified into three broad categories: 1) spatial/spatiotemporal modeling of specific diseases, including chronic diseases and communicable diseases, as well as their associations with environmental risks; 2) spatial/spatiotemporal modeling of environmental exposures from physical, behavioral, and/or socioeconomic environments; and 3) studies on healthcare services, including assessment of geographic access to healthcare facilities, investigation of disparity in the access, and optimization of resource allocation. The boundaries between these divisions are not clear-cut. Meanwhile, applications in public health have also been pushing the frontiers of GIS research on spatiotemporal modeling, high-performance computing, uncertainty, big data of human mobility, and geospatial privacy.

DA-46 - Computational Geography

Computational Geography emerged in the 1980s in response to the reductionist limitations of early GIS software, which inhibited deep analyses of rich geographic data. Today, Computational Geography continues to integrate a wide range of domains to facilitate spatial analyses that require computational resources or ontological paradigms beyond that made available in traditional GIS software packages. These include novel approaches for the mass creation of geospatial data, large-scale database design for the effective storage and querying of spatial identifiers (i.e., distributed spatial databases), and methodologies which enable simulations and/or analysis in the context of large-scale, frequently near-real-time, spatially-explicit sources of information. The topics studied within Computational Geography directly enable many of the world’s largest public databases, including Google Maps and Open Street Map (OSM), as well as many modern analytic pipelines designed to study human behavior with the integration of large volumes of location information (e.g., mobile phone data) with other geospatial sources (e.g., satellite imagery).

DA-06 - Applications in state government
  • List and describe the types of data maintained by state governments
  • Explain how geospatial information might be used in a taking of private property through a government’s claim of its right of eminent domain
  • Describe how geospatial data are used and maintained for land use planning, property value assessment, maintenance of public works, and other applications
  • Explain the concept of a “spatial decision support system”
DA-07 - Applications in federal government
  • List and describe the types of data maintained by federal governments
  • Explain how geospatial information might be used in a taking of private property through a government’s claim of its right of eminent domain
  • Describe how geospatial data are used and maintained for land use planning, property value assessment, maintenance of public works, and other applications
  • Explain the concept of a “spatial decision support system”

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