Science—and research more broadly—face many challenges as its practitioners struggle to accommodate new challenges around reproducibility and openness. The current practice of science limits access to knowledge, information and infrastructure, which in turn leads to inefficiencies, frustrations and a lack of rigor. Many useful research outcomes are never used because they are too difficult to find, or to access, or to understand.
New computational methods and infrastructure provide opportunities to reconceptualize how science is conducted, how it is shared, how it is evaluated and how it is reused. And new data sources changed what can be known, and how well, and how frequently. This article describes some of the major themes of eScience/eResearch aimed at improving the process of doing science.