Earth geometry

DM-44 - Approximating the Earth's shape with geoids
  • Explain why gravity varies over the Earth’s surface
  • Explain how geoids are modeled
  • Explain the role that the U.S. National Geodetic Survey plays in maintaining and developing geoid models
  • Explain the concept of an equipotential gravity surface (i.e., a geoid)
DM-44 - Approximating the Earth's shape with geoids
  • Explain why gravity varies over the Earth’s surface
  • Explain how geoids are modeled
  • Explain the role that the U.S. National Geodetic Survey plays in maintaining and developing geoid models
  • Explain the concept of an equipotential gravity surface (i.e., a geoid)
DM-44 - Approximating the Earth's shape with geoids
  • Explain why gravity varies over the Earth’s surface
  • Explain how geoids are modeled
  • Explain the role that the U.S. National Geodetic Survey plays in maintaining and developing geoid models
  • Explain the concept of an equipotential gravity surface (i.e., a geoid)
DM-43 - Approximating the geoid with spheres and ellipsoids
  • Identify the parameters used to define an ellipsoid
  • Differentiate the Clarke 1866 and WGS 84 ellipsoids in terms of ellipsoid parameters
  • Differentiate between a bi-axial and tri-axial ellipsoid and their applications
  • Explain why spheres and ellipsoids are used to approximate geoids
  • Distinguish between a geoid, an ellipsoid, a sphere, and the terrain surface
  • Describe an application for which it is acceptable to use a sphere rather than an ellipsoid
DM-42 - History of understanding Earth's shape
  • Describe how scientists’ understanding of the Earth’s shape has evolved throughout history
  • Describe the contributions of key individuals (e.g., Eratosthenes, Newton, Picard, Bouguer, LaPlace, La Candamine) to scientists’ understanding of the Earth’s shape
  • Explain how technological and mathematical advances have led to more sophisticated knowledge about the Earth’s shape
  • Describe and critique early efforts to measure the Earth’s size and shape
DM-44 - Approximating the Earth's shape with geoids
  • Explain why gravity varies over the Earth’s surface
  • Explain how geoids are modeled
  • Explain the role that the U.S. National Geodetic Survey plays in maintaining and developing geoid models
  • Explain the concept of an equipotential gravity surface (i.e., a geoid)
DM-43 - Approximating the geoid with spheres and ellipsoids
  • Identify the parameters used to define an ellipsoid
  • Differentiate the Clarke 1866 and WGS 84 ellipsoids in terms of ellipsoid parameters
  • Differentiate between a bi-axial and tri-axial ellipsoid and their applications
  • Explain why spheres and ellipsoids are used to approximate geoids
  • Distinguish between a geoid, an ellipsoid, a sphere, and the terrain surface
  • Describe an application for which it is acceptable to use a sphere rather than an ellipsoid
DM-42 - History of understanding Earth's shape
  • Describe how scientists’ understanding of the Earth’s shape has evolved throughout history
  • Describe the contributions of key individuals (e.g., Eratosthenes, Newton, Picard, Bouguer, LaPlace, La Candamine) to scientists’ understanding of the Earth’s shape
  • Explain how technological and mathematical advances have led to more sophisticated knowledge about the Earth’s shape
  • Describe and critique early efforts to measure the Earth’s size and shape
DM-43 - Approximating the geoid with spheres and ellipsoids
  • Identify the parameters used to define an ellipsoid
  • Differentiate the Clarke 1866 and WGS 84 ellipsoids in terms of ellipsoid parameters
  • Differentiate between a bi-axial and tri-axial ellipsoid and their applications
  • Explain why spheres and ellipsoids are used to approximate geoids
  • Distinguish between a geoid, an ellipsoid, a sphere, and the terrain surface
  • Describe an application for which it is acceptable to use a sphere rather than an ellipsoid
DM-44 - Approximating the Earth's shape with geoids
  • Explain why gravity varies over the Earth’s surface
  • Explain how geoids are modeled
  • Explain the role that the U.S. National Geodetic Survey plays in maintaining and developing geoid models
  • Explain the concept of an equipotential gravity surface (i.e., a geoid)

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