Data properties are characteristics of GIS attribute systems and values whose design and format impacts analytical and computational processing. Geospatial data are expressed at conceptual, logical, and physical levels of database abstraction intended to represent geographical information. The appropriate design of attribute systems and selection of properties should be logically consistent and support appropriate scales of measurement for representation and analysis. Geospatial concepts such as object-field views and dimensional space for relating objects and qualities form data models based on a geographic matrix and feature geometry. Three GIS approaches and their attribute system design are described: tessellations, vectors, and graphs.