##### DM-26 - Mereology: structural relationships

- Describe particular geographic phenomena in terms of their place in mereonomic hierarchies (parts and composites)
- Explain the contributions of formal mathematical methods such as graph theory to the study and application of geographic structures
- Represent structural relationships in GIS data
- Explain the effects of spatial or temporal scale on the perception of structure
- Explain the modeling of structural relationships in standard GIS data models, such as stored topology
- Identify phenomena that are best understood as networks

## DM-28 - Topological relationships