2021 QUARTER 01

CV-06 - Map Projections

Map projection is the process of transforming angular (spherical / elliptical) coordinates into planar coordinates. All map projections introduce distortion (e.g., to areas, angles, distances) in the resulting planar coordinates. Understanding what, where, and how much distortion is introduced is an important consideration for spatial computations and visual interpretation of spatial patterns, as well as for general aesthetics of any map.

CV-21 - Map Reading

Map reading is the process of looking at the map to determine what is depicted and how the cartographer depicted it. This involves identifying the features or phenomena portrayed, the symbols and labels used, and information about the map that may not be displayed on the map. Reading maps accurately and effectively requires at least a basic understanding of how the mapmaker has made important cartographic decisions relating to map scale, map projections, coordinate systems, and cartographic compilation (selection, classification, generalization, and symbolization). Proficient map readers also appreciate artifacts of the cartographic compilation process that improve readability but may also affect map accuracy and uncertainty. Masters of map reading use maps to gain better understanding of their environment, develop better mental maps, and ultimately make better decisions. Through successful map reading, a person’s cartographic and mental maps will merge to tune the reader’s spatial thinking to the reality of the environment.

GS-26 - Mapping Spatial Justice for Marginal Societies

Marginal populations are those populations that are often overlooked by government, dependent upon non-governmental aid, and lack access to basic resources such as water, food, shelter, and security.  However, these groups are increasingly included in partnerships to map their resources (or lack thereof), develop basic applications in geospatial data collection, and devise innovative approaches to participatory mapping using geospatial technologies to address local and regional problems. Rapid technological changes and increased access to mobile geospatial tools enhance data creation efforts to map marginal populations and identify their needs. However, such mapping activities reveal fundamental inequities in collecting, disseminating, and visualizing spatial data.  This chapter defines marginal populations and provides an overview of data needs, geospatial tools, and ethical obligations necessary for these partnerships.

AM-48 - Mathematical models of uncertainty: probability and statistics
  • Devise simple ways to represent probability information in GIS
  • Describe the basic principles of randomness and probability
  • Compute descriptive statistics and geostatistics of geographic data
  • Interpret descriptive statistics and geostatistics of geographic data
  • Recognize the assumptions underlying probability and geostatistics and the situations in which they are useful analytical tools
DM-31 - Mathematical models of vagueness: Fuzzy sets and rough sets
  • Compare and contrast the relative merits of fuzzy sets, rough sets, and other models
  • Differentiate between fuzzy set membership and probabilistic set membership
  • Explain the problems inherent in fuzzy sets
  • Create appropriate membership functions to model vague phenomena
KE-17 - Measuring costs
  • Explain how the saying “developing data is the largest single cost of implementing GIS” could be true for an organization that is already collecting data as part of its regular operations
  • Describe some non-fiduciary barriers to GIS implementation
  • Summarize what the literature suggests as means for overcoming some of the non-fiduciary barriers to GIS implementation
  • Outline sources of additional costs associated with development of an enterprise GIS
  • Outline the categories of costs that an organization should anticipate as it plans to design and implement a GIS
GS-08 - Mechanisms of control of geospatial information
  • Distinguish among the various intellectual property rights, including copyright, patent, trademark, business methods, and other rights
  • Explain how databases may be protected under U.S. copyright law
  • Describe advantages and disadvantages of “open” alternatives to copyright protection, such as the Creative Commons
  • Outline the intellectual property protection clause of a contract that a local government uses to license geospatial data to a community group
  • Explain how maps may be protected under U.S. copyright law
  • Differentiate geospatial information from other works protected under copyright law
DM-57 - Metadata
  • Define “metadata” in the context of the geospatial data set
  • Use a metadata utility to create a geospatial metadata document for a digital database you created
  • Formulate metadata for a graphic output that would be distributed to the general public
  • Formulate metadata for a geostatistical analysis that would be released to an experienced audience
  • Compose data integrity statements for a geostatistical or spatial analysis to be included in graphic output
  • Identify software tools available to support metadata creation
  • Interpret the elements of an existing metadata document
  • Explain why metadata production should be integrated into the data production and database development workflows, rather than treated as an ancillary activity
  • Outline the elements of the U.S. geospatial metadata standard
  • Explain the ways in which metadata increases the value of geospatial data
CV-25 - Metadata, Quality, and Uncertainty
  • Describe a scenario in which possible errors in a map may impact subsequent decision making, such as a land use decision based on a soils map
  • Evaluate the uncertainty inherent in a map
  • Compare the decisions made using a map with a reliability overlay from those made using a map pair separating data and reliability, both drawn from the same dataset
  • Critique the assumption that maps can or should be “accurate”
FC-01 - Metaphysics and ontology
  • Define common theories on what is “real,” such as realism, idealism, relativism, and experiential realism
  • Compare and contrast the ability of different theories to explain various situations
  • Recognize the commonalities of philosophical viewpoints and appreciate differences to enable work with diverse colleagues
  • Evaluate the influences of particular worldviews (including one’s own) on GIS practices
  • Justify the metaphysical theories with which you agree
  • Identify the ontological assumptions underlying the work of colleagues