2021 QUARTER 03

AM-34 - The Geographically Weighted Regression Framework

Local multivariate statistical models are increasingly encountered in geographical research to estimate spatially varying relationships between a response variable and its associated predictor variables. In geography and many other disciplines, such models have been largely embedded within the framework of regression and can reveal significantly more information about the determinants of observed spatial distribution of the dependent variable than their global regression model counterparts. This section introduces one type of local statistical modeling framework: Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR). Models within this framework estimate location-specific parameter estimates for each covariate, local diagnostic statistics, and bandwidth parameters as indicators of the spatial scales at which the modeled processes operate. These models provide an effective means to estimate how the same factors may evoke different responses across locations and by so doing, bring to the fore the role of geographical context on human preferences and behavior.

KE-29 - The geospatial community
  • Describe possible benefits to an organization by participating in a given society that is related to GIS&T
  • Discuss the value or effect of participation in societies, conferences, and informal communities to entities managing enterprise GIS
  • Identify conferences that are related to GIS&T
KE-30 - The geospatial industry
  • Assess the involvement of non-GIS companies (e.g., Microsoft, Google) in the geospatial industry
  • Describe three applications of geospatial technology for different workforce domains (e.g., first responders, forestry, water resource management, facilities management)
  • Explain why software products sold by U.S. companies may predominate in foreign markets, including Europe and Australia
  • Describe the U.S. geospatial industry including vendors, software, hardware and data
DM-09 - The hexagonal model
  • Illustrate the hexagonal model
  • Explain the limitations of the grid model compared to the hexagonal model
  • Exemplify the uses (past and potential) of the hexagonal model
GS-01 - The legal regime
  • Discuss ways in which the geospatial profession is regulated under the U.S. legal regime
  • Compare and contrast the relationship of the geospatial profession and the U.S. legal regime with similar relationships in other countries
DM-15 - The network model
  • Define the following terms pertaining to a network: Loops, multiple edges, the degree of a vertex, walk, trail, path, cycle, fundamental cycle
  • List definitions of networks that apply to specific applications or industries
  • Create an adjacency table from a sample network
  • Explain how a graph can be written as an adjacency matrix and how this can be used to calculate topological shortest paths in the graph
  • Create an incidence matrix from a sample network
  • Explain how a graph (network) may be directed or undirected
  • Demonstrate how attributes of networks can be used to represent cost, time, distance, or many other measures
  • Demonstrate how the star (or forward star) data structure, which is often employed when digitally storing network information, violates relational normal form, but allows for much faster search and retrieval in network databases
  • Discuss some of the difficulties of applying the standard process-pattern concept to lines and networks
  • Demonstrate how a network is a connected set of edges and vertices
FC-20 - The power of maps
  • Describe how maps such as topographic maps are produced within certain relations of power and knowledge
  • Discuss how the choices used in the design of a road map will influence the experience visitors may have of the area
  • Explain how legal issues impact the design and content of such special purpose maps as subdivision plans, nautical charts, and cadastral maps
  • Exemplify maps that illustrate the provocative, propagandistic, political, and persuasive nature of maps and geospatial data
  • Demonstrate how different methods of data classification for a single dataset can produce maps that will be interpreted very differently by the user
  • Deconstruct the silences (feature omissions) on a map of a personally well known area
  • Construct two maps about a conflict or war producing one supportive of each side’s viewpoint
KE-01 - The process of GIS&T design
  • Describe the major approaches to the design of geospatial systems
  • Analyze past cases to identify best practices of design and implementation
  • Compare and contrast the relative merits of the use-case driven and architecture-centric design processes
DM-07 - The Raster Data Model

The raster data model is a widely used method of storing geographic data. The model most commonly takes the form of a grid-like structure that holds values at regularly spaced intervals over the extent of the raster. Rasters are especially well suited for storing continuous data such as temperature and elevation values, but can hold discrete and categorical data such as land use as well.  The resolution of a raster is given in linear units (e.g., meters) or angular units (e.g., one arc second) and defines the extent along one side of the grid cell. High (or fine) resolution rasters have comparatively closer spacing and more grid cells than low (or coarse) resolution rasters, and require relatively more memory to store. Active research in the domain is oriented toward improving compression schemes and implementation for alternative cell shapes (such as hexagons), and better supporting multi-resolution raster storage and analysis functions.

DM-13 - The topological model
  • Define terms related to topology (e.g., adjacency, connectivity, overlap, intersect, logical consistency)
  • Describe the integrity constraints of integrated topological models (e.g., POLYVRT)
  • Discuss the historical roots of the Census Bureau’s creation of GBF/DIME as the foundation for the development of topological data structures
  • Explain why integrated topological models have lost favor in commercial GIS software
  • Evaluate the positive and negative impacts of the shift from integrated topological models
  • Discuss the role of graph theory in topological structures
  • Exemplify the concept of planar enforcement (e.g., TIN triangles)
  • Demonstrate how a topological structure can be represented in a relational database structure
  • Explain the advantages and disadvantages of topological data models
  • Illustrate a topological relation