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- Identify some of the key commercial activities that provided an impetus for the development of GIS&T
- Differentiate the dominant industries using geospatial technologies during the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s
- Describe the contributions of McHarg and other practitioners in developing geographic analysis methods later incorporated into GIS
- Evaluate the correspondence between advances in hardware and operating system technology and changes in GIS software
- Describe the influence of evolving computer hardware and of private sector hardware firms such as IBM on the emerging GIS software industry
- Discuss the emergence of the GIS software industry in terms of technology evolution and markets served by firms such as ESRI, Intergraph, and ERDAS