##### DM-13 - The topological model

- Define terms related to topology (e.g., adjacency, connectivity, overlap, intersect, logical consistency)
- Describe the integrity constraints of integrated topological models (e.g., POLYVRT)
- Discuss the historical roots of the Census Bureau’s creation of GBF/DIME as the foundation for the development of topological data structures
- Explain why integrated topological models have lost favor in commercial GIS software
- Evaluate the positive and negative impacts of the shift from integrated topological models
- Discuss the role of graph theory in topological structures
- Exemplify the concept of planar enforcement (e.g., TIN triangles)
- Demonstrate how a topological structure can be represented in a relational database structure
- Explain the advantages and disadvantages of topological data models
- Illustrate a topological relation

## DM-12 - The spaghetti model