All Topics

A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P R S T U V W
AM-08 - Kernels and density estimation
  • Describe the relationships between kernels and classical spatial interaction approaches, such as surfaces of potential
  • Outline the likely effects on analysis results of variations in the kernel function used and the bandwidth adopted
  • Explain why and how density estimation transforms point data into a field representation
  • Explain why, in some cases, an adaptive bandwidth might be employed
  • Create density maps from point datasets using kernels and density estimation techniques using standard software
  • Differentiate between kernel density estimation and spatial interpolation
AM-37 - Knowledge discovery
  • Explain how spatial data mining techniques can be used for knowledge discovery
  • Explain how a Bayesian framework can incorporate expert knowledge in order to retrieve all relevant datasets given an initial user query
  • Explain how visual data exploration can be combined with data mining techniques as a means of discovering research hypotheses in large spatial datasets
AM-29 - Kriging Interpolation

Kriging is an interpolation method that makes predictions at unsampled locations using a linear combination of observations at nearby sampled locations. The influence of each observation on the kriging prediction is based on several factors: 1) its geographical proximity to the unsampled location, 2) the spatial arrangement of all observations (i.e., data configuration, such as clustering of observations in oversampled areas), and 3) the pattern of spatial correlation of the data. The development of kriging models is meaningful only when data are spatially correlated.. Kriging has several advantages over traditional interpolation techniques, such as inverse distance weighting or nearest neighbor: 1) it provides a measure of uncertainty attached to the results (i.e., kriging variance); 2) it accounts for direction-dependent relationships (i.e., spatial anisotropy); 3) weights are assigned to observations based on the spatial correlation of data instead of assumptions made by the analyst for IDW; 4) kriging predictions are not constrained to the range of observations used for interpolation, and 5) data measured over different spatial supports can be combined and change of support, such as downscaling or upscaling, can be conducted.