## All Topics

##### DM-01 - Basic data structures

- Define basic data structure terminology (e.g., records, field, parent/child, nodes, pointers)
- Analyze the relative storage efficiency of each of the basic data structures
- Implement algorithms that store geospatial data to a range of data structures
- Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different data structures (e.g., arrays, linked lists, binary trees) for storing geospatial data
- Differentiate among data models, data structures, and file structures

##### AM-25 - Bayesian methods

- Define “prior and posterior distributions” and “Markov-Chain Monte Carlo”
- Explain how the Bayesian perspective is a unified framework from which to view uncertainty
- Compare and contrast Bayesian methods and classical “frequentist” statistical methods

##### CV-19 - Big Data Visualization

- Explain how the concept “digital cartographic models” unifies a number of principles for computer cartography
- Identify areas in cartography and visualization that have, and those that have not, advanced because of computational approaches
- Explain how the rise of interoperability and open standards has affected the production of cartographic representations and visualizations
- Explain how optimization techniques are improving the automated design of maps
- Describe the structure and function of geographic names databases (i.e., gazetteer) for use in mapping
- Differentiate between GIS and graphics software tools for mapping and those for visualization purposes

##### CV-12 - Bivariate and Multivariate Maps

- Differentiate the interpretation of a series of three maps and a single multivariate map, each representing the same three related variables
- Design a single map symbol that can be used to symbolize a set of related variables
- Create a map that displays related variables using different mapping methods (e.g., choropleth
- and proportional symbol, choropleth and cartogram) Create a map that displays related variables using the same mapping method (e.g., bivariate choropleth map, bivariate dot map)
- Design a map series to show the change in a geographic pattern over time
- Detect a multivariate outlier using a combination of maps and graphs
- Explain the relationship among several variables in a parallel coordinate plot

##### KE-20 - Budgeting for GIS management

- Describe various approaches to the long-term funding of a GIS in an organization
- Describe methods to evaluate the return on investment (ROI) of a GIS within an organization
- Develop a budget for ongoing re-design and system improvement
- Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of maintenance contracts for software, hardware, and data across an enterprise
- Evaluate the adequacy of current investments in capital (e.g., facilities, hardware, software) and labor for a GIS
- Justify changes to the investment in an enterprise GIS, including both cutbacks and increased expenses

## GS-10 - Balancing data access, security, and privacy