##### GS-10 - Balancing data access, security, and privacy

- Assess the effect of restricting data in the context of the availability of alternate sources of data
- Exemplify areas where post-9/11 changes in policies have restricted or expanded data access

- Assess the effect of restricting data in the context of the availability of alternate sources of data
- Exemplify areas where post-9/11 changes in policies have restricted or expanded data access

- Define basic data structure terminology (e.g., records, field, parent/child, nodes, pointers)
- Analyze the relative storage efficiency of each of the basic data structures
- Implement algorithms that store geospatial data to a range of data structures
- Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different data structures (e.g., arrays, linked lists, binary trees) for storing geospatial data
- Differentiate among data models, data structures, and file structures

- Define “prior and posterior distributions” and “Markov-Chain Monte Carlo”
- Explain how the Bayesian perspective is a unified framework from which to view uncertainty
- Compare and contrast Bayesian methods and classical “frequentist” statistical methods

- Explain how the concept “digital cartographic models” unifies a number of principles for computer cartography
- Identify areas in cartography and visualization that have, and those that have not, advanced because of computational approaches
- Explain how the rise of interoperability and open standards has affected the production of cartographic representations and visualizations
- Explain how optimization techniques are improving the automated design of maps
- Describe the structure and function of geographic names databases (i.e., gazetteer) for use in mapping
- Differentiate between GIS and graphics software tools for mapping and those for visualization purposes

- Differentiate the interpretation of a series of three maps and a single multivariate map, each representing the same three related variables
- Design a single map symbol that can be used to symbolize a set of related variables
- Create a map that displays related variables using different mapping methods (e.g., choropleth
- and proportional symbol, choropleth and cartogram) Create a map that displays related variables using the same mapping method (e.g., bivariate choropleth map, bivariate dot map)
- Design a map series to show the change in a geographic pattern over time
- Detect a multivariate outlier using a combination of maps and graphs
- Explain the relationship among several variables in a parallel coordinate plot

- Describe various approaches to the long-term funding of a GIS in an organization
- Describe methods to evaluate the return on investment (ROI) of a GIS within an organization
- Develop a budget for ongoing re-design and system improvement
- Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of maintenance contracts for software, hardware, and data across an enterprise
- Evaluate the adequacy of current investments in capital (e.g., facilities, hardware, software) and labor for a GIS
- Justify changes to the investment in an enterprise GIS, including both cutbacks and increased expenses

- List the likely sources of error in slope and aspect maps derived from digital elevation models (DEMs) and state the circumstances under which these can be very severe
- Outline how higher order derivatives of height can be interpreted
- Explain how slope and aspect can be represented as the vector field given by the first derivative of height
- Explain why the properties of spatial continuity are characteristic of spatial surfaces
- Explain why zero slopes are indicative of surface specific points such as peaks, pits, and passes, and list the conditions necessary for each
- Design an algorithm that calculates slope and aspect from a triangulated irregular network (TIN) model
- Outline a number of different methods for calculating slope from a DEM

## CP-04 - Artificial intelligence