Knowledge Economy

Knowledge Economy is the portion of the Body of Knowledge focused on the elements of GIScience central to the growth of the field, particularly in areas related to the professional realm. This knowledge area emphasizes the education and training of personnel, labor and management issues, professional standards (like certification and ethics), industry economics and impacts, and overarching professional community issues.

Topics in this Knowledge Area are listed thematically below. Existing topics are in regular font and linked directly to their original entries (published in 2006; these contain only Learning Objectives). Entries that have been updated and expanded are in bold. Forthcoming, future topics are italicized

GIS&T Workforce GIS Operations
Social, Political, and Cultural Issues Capital: Facilities and Equipment
Labor and Management Funding
GIS&T Workforce Development Implementation Planning
Competence in GIS&T Knowledge Work Organizational Models for GIS Management
GIS&T Positions and Qualifications Design & Implementation of GIS&T
GIS&T Training and Education The Process of GIS&T Design
Professional Certification Problem Definition
Incorporating GIS&T into existing job classifications  Strategic Planning for GIS Design
  Application User Assessment
Coordinating Organizations Requirements Analysis
Agency, organizational, and individual perspectives  Feasibility Analysis
Data sharing among public and private agencies, organizations, and individuals Managing GIS Operations & Infrastructure
Professional organizations Budgeting for GIS Management
Publications Systems Modeling for Effective GIS Management
The Geospatial Community User Support
The Geospatial Industry GIS&T Benefits and Costs
  Data Costs
  Economics & the Role of Information
  Valuing and Measuring Benefits
  Models of Benefits
  Measuring Costs

 

KE-02 - Problem definition
  • Recognize the challenges of implementing and using geospatial technologies
  • Create a charter or hypothesis that defines and justifies the mission of a GIS to solve existing problems
  • Define an enterprise GIS in terms of institutional missions and goals
  • Identify geographic tasks for which particular geospatial technologies are not adequate or sufficient
  • Identify what is typically needed to garner support among managers for designing and/or creating a GIS
KE-31 - Professional Certification

Professional Certification has been a part of the GIS enterprise for over two decades. There are several different certification programs and related activities now in operation within GIS, though there has been much debate over its merits, how it should be done and by whom. 

KE-27 - Professional organizations
  • Compare and contrast the missions, histories, constituencies, and activities of professional organizations including Association of American Geographers (AAG), America Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS), Geospatial Information and Technology Association (GITA), Management Association for Private Photogrammetric Surveyors (MAPPS), and Urban and Regional Information Systems Association (URISA)
  • Identify conferences that are related to GIS&T hosted by professional organizations
  • Discuss the mission, history, constituencies, and activities of the GIS Certification Institute (GISCI)
KE-28 - Publications
  • Describe the leading academic journals serving the GIS&T community
  • Select association and for-profit journals that are useful to entities managing enterprise GISs
  • Select and describe the leading trade journals serving the GIS&T community
  • Develop a bibliography of scholarly and professional articles and/or books that are relevant to a particular GIS&T project
KE-05 - Requirements analysis
  • Describe the need for user-centered requirements analysis
  • Create requirements reports for individual potential applications in terms of the data, procedures, and output needed
  • Assess the relative importance and immediacy of potential applications
  • Synthesize the needs of individual users and tasks into enterprise-wide needs
  • Differentiate between the responsibilities of the proposed system and those that remain with the user
  • Illustrate how a business process analysis can be used to identify requirements during a GIS implementation
  • Describe how spatial data and GIS&T can be integrated into a workflow process
  • Evaluate how external spatial data sources can be incorporated into the business process
  • Develop use cases for potential applications using established techniques with potential users, such as questionnaires, interviews, focus groups, the Delphi method, and/or joint application development (JAD)
  • Document existing and potential tasks in terms of workflow and information flow
KE-06 - Social, political, and cultural issues
  • Recognize the unique constraints or opportunities of the social or cultural context of a potential application
  • Compare and contrast the needs, constraints, and opportunities of different types of institutions, such as corporations, non-profit organizations, government agencies, and educational institutions
KE-03 - Strategic Planning for GIS Design

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are pervasive and have become an essential feature in many professional disciplines. Prior to adoption, implementation or use of any GIS, a system must be properly designed to meet its organizational goals, and this requires comprehensive strategic planning to take place ahead of the design. In this article, we discuss methods for strategic planning in GIS design, drawing from literature in Information Systems and GIS research and practice, and business management. We present a four-step approach toward planning for GIS design that will ensure the system is well-suited to further an organization’s long-term functions, applications, and users’ needs.

KE-21 - System Modelling for Effective GIS Management

A geographic information system in operation is highly complex, as the scope of the GIS&T Body of Knowledge demonstrates. Modern society relies on many complex systems, but most are self-contained mechanisms with limited and well defined interfaces. A GIS is a complex open system that extends across the realms of hardware, software, data, science, and human processes. A conceptual model of a GIS can be an effective tool to design, implement, operate, maintain, manage, and assessment tool.

KE-29 - The geospatial community
  • Describe possible benefits to an organization by participating in a given society that is related to GIS&T
  • Discuss the value or effect of participation in societies, conferences, and informal communities to entities managing enterprise GIS
  • Identify conferences that are related to GIS&T
KE-30 - The geospatial industry
  • Assess the involvement of non-GIS companies (e.g., Microsoft, Google) in the geospatial industry
  • Describe three applications of geospatial technology for different workforce domains (e.g., first responders, forestry, water resource management, facilities management)
  • Explain why software products sold by U.S. companies may predominate in foreign markets, including Europe and Australia
  • Describe the U.S. geospatial industry including vendors, software, hardware and data

Pages