The partitioning of space is an essential consideration for the efficient allocation of resources. In the United States and many other countries, this parcelization of sub-regions for political and legislative purposes results in what is referred to as districts. A district is an aggregation of smaller, spatially bound units, along with their statistical properties, into larger spatially-bound units. When a district has the primary purpose of representation, individuals who reside within that district make up a constituency. Redistricting is often required as populations of constituents shift over time or resources that service areas change. Administrative challenges with creating districts have been greatly aided by increasing utilization of GIS. However, with these advances in geospatial methods, political disputes with the way in which districts increasingly snare the process in legal battles often centered on the topic of gerrymandering. This chapter focuses on the redistricting process within the United States and how the aggregation of representative spatial entities presents a mix of political, technical and legal challenges.
The connections and interactions between GIS&T and society range in scale from institutions and business enterprises down to the individual level. Some fundamental drivers behind those interconnections are political, economic, legal, and cultural. Rapidly developing GI technology and infrastructures also generate various forms of public GIS practice as part of citizen science, VGI and social media. These activities provoke questions and critiques around governance, democracy, diversity, and ethics.
Topics in this Knowledge Area are listed thematically below. Existing topics are linked directly to either their original (2006) or revised entries; forthcoming, future topics are italicized.
|Cognitive and Social Foundations||GI as Property|
|Common-sense Geographies||Property Regimes|
|Cultural Influences||Mechanisms of Control of GI|
|Political Influences||Enforcing Control of GI|
|Law, Regulation, and Policy||Critical Perspectives|
|The Legal Regime||Epistemological Critiques|
|Liability||GIS & Critical Ethics|
|Contract Law||Feminist Critiques|
|Location Privacy||Social Critiques|
|Legal Mechanisms for Sharing Geospatial Info||Balancing Data Access, Security, and Privacy|
|Governance and Agency|
|Professional & Practical Ethics of GIS&T|
|Codes of Ethics for Geospatial Professionals|
|Citizen Science with GIS&T|
|Spatial Decision Support|
|Balancing Security & Open Access to Geospatial Data|
|Public Participation GIS|
|Implications of Distributed GIS&T|
|Aggregation of Spatial Entities with spatial focus on redistricting|