GIS&T and Society

The connections and interactions between GIS&T and society range in scale from institutions and business enterprises down to the individual level. Some fundamental drivers behind those interconnections are political, economic, legal, and cultural. Rapidly developing GI technology and infrastructures also generate various forms of public GIS practice as part of citizen science, VGI and social media. These activities provoke questions and critiques around governance, democracy, diversity, and ethics.

Topics in this Knowledge Area are listed thematically below. Existing topics are linked directly to either their original (2006) or revised entries; forthcoming, future topics are italicized. 

Cognitive and Social Foundations GI as Property
Common-sense Geographies Property Regimes
Cultural Influences Mechanisms of Control of GI
Political Influences Enforcing Control of GI
Alternative Representations Geopiracy
Law, Regulation, and Policy Critical Perspectives
The Legal Regime Epistemological Critiques
Liability GIS & Critical Ethics
Contract Law Feminist Critiques of GIS
Location Privacy Social Critiques
Legal Mechanisms for Sharing Geospatial Info Balancing Data Access, Security, and Privacy
Governance and Agency  
Professional & Practical Ethics of GIS&T  
Codes of Ethics for Geospatial Professionals  
Citizen Science with GIS&T  
Spatial Decision Support  
Marginal Societies  
Balancing Security & Open Access to Geospatial Data  
Public Participation GIS  
Implications of Distributed GIS&T  
Aggregation of Spatial Entities with spatial focus on redistricting