As new information and communication technologies have altered so many aspects of our daily lives over the past decades, they have simultaneously stimulated a shift in the types of data that we collect, produce, and analyze. Together, this changing data landscape is often referred to as "big data." Big data is distinguished from "small data" not only by its high volume but also by the velocity, variety, exhaustivity, resolution, relationality, and flexibility of the datasets. This entry discusses the visualization of big spatial datasets. As many such datasets contain geographic attributes or are situated and produced within geographic space, cartography takes on a pivotal role in big data visualization. Visualization of big data is frequently and effectively used to communicate and present information, but it is in making sense of big data – generating new insights and knowledge – that visualization is becoming an indispensable tool, making cartography vital to understanding geographic big data. Although visualization of big data presents several challenges, human experts can use visualization in general, and cartography in particular, aided by interfaces and software designed for this purpose, to effectively explore and analyze big data.
The Cartography & Visualization section encapsulates competencies related to the design and use of maps and mapping technology. This section covers core topics of reference and thematic maps design, as well as the emerging topics of interaction design, web map design, and mobile map design. This section also covers historical and contemporary influences on cartography and evolving data and critical considerations for map design and use.
Topics in this Knowledge Area are listed thematically below. Existing topics are in regular font and linked directly to their original entries (published in 2006; these contain only Learning Objectives). Entries that have been updated and expanded are in bold. Forthcoming, future topics are italicized.
|History & Trends||Map Design Techniques||Interactive Design Techniques|
|Cartography & Science||Common Thematic Map Types||User Interface and User Experience (UI/UX) Design|
|Cartography & Art||Multivariate Mapping||Web Mapping|
|Cartography & Power||Spatio-Temporal Representation||Virtual & Immersive Environments|
|Representing Uncertainty||Big Data Visualization|
|Terrain Representation||Mobile Maps & Responsive Design|
|Data Considerations||Cartograms||Usability Engineering & Evaluation|
|Vector Formats & Sources||Map Icon Design||Geovisual Analytics|
|Raster Formats & Sources||Narrative & Storytelling||Geovisualization|
|Map Design Fundamentals||Participatory Cartography|
|Scale & Generalization||Map Use|
|Statistical Mapping (Enumeration, Normalization, Classification)||Lesson Design in Cartography Education|
|Map Projections||Map Reading|
|Visual Hierarchy & Layout||Map Interpretation|
|Symbolization & the Visual Variables||Map Analysis|
|Design and Aesthetics|
|Map Production and Management|