## Uncertainty, imperfections in geographic information

##### DM-31 - Mathematical models of vagueness: Fuzzy sets and rough sets
• Compare and contrast the relative merits of fuzzy sets, rough sets, and other models
• Differentiate between fuzzy set membership and probabilistic set membership
• Explain the problems inherent in fuzzy sets
• Create appropriate membership functions to model vague phenomena
##### DM-30 - Vagueness
• Compare and contrast the meanings of related terms such as vague, fuzzy, imprecise, indefinite, indiscrete, unclear, and ambiguous
• Describe the cognitive processes that tend to create vagueness
• Recognize the degree to which vagueness depends on scale
• Evaluate vagueness in the locations, time, attributes, and other aspects of geographic phenomena
• Differentiate between the following concepts: vagueness and ambiguity, well defined and poorly defined objects and fields, and discord and non-specificity
• Identify the hedges used in language to convey vagueness
• Evaluate the role that system complexity, dynamic processes, and subjectivity play in the creation of vague phenomena and concepts
• Differentiate applications in which vagueness is an acceptable trait from those in which it is unacceptable
##### DM-32 - Error-based uncertainty
• Define uncertainty-related terms, such as error, accuracy, uncertainty, precision, stochastic, probabilistic, deterministic, and random
• Recognize expressions of uncertainty in language
• Evaluate the causes of uncertainty in geospatial data
• Describe a stochastic error model for a natural phenomenon
• Explain how the familiar concepts of geographic objects and fields affect the conceptualization of uncertainty
• Recognize the degree to which the importance of uncertainty depends on scale and application
• Differentiate uncertainty in geospatial situations from vagueness
##### DM-31 - Mathematical models of vagueness: Fuzzy sets and rough sets
• Compare and contrast the relative merits of fuzzy sets, rough sets, and other models
• Differentiate between fuzzy set membership and probabilistic set membership
• Explain the problems inherent in fuzzy sets
• Create appropriate membership functions to model vague phenomena
##### DM-30 - Vagueness
• Compare and contrast the meanings of related terms such as vague, fuzzy, imprecise, indefinite, indiscrete, unclear, and ambiguous
• Describe the cognitive processes that tend to create vagueness
• Recognize the degree to which vagueness depends on scale
• Evaluate vagueness in the locations, time, attributes, and other aspects of geographic phenomena
• Differentiate between the following concepts: vagueness and ambiguity, well defined and poorly defined objects and fields, and discord and non-specificity
• Identify the hedges used in language to convey vagueness
• Evaluate the role that system complexity, dynamic processes, and subjectivity play in the creation of vague phenomena and concepts
• Differentiate applications in which vagueness is an acceptable trait from those in which it is unacceptable
##### DM-32 - Error-based uncertainty
• Define uncertainty-related terms, such as error, accuracy, uncertainty, precision, stochastic, probabilistic, deterministic, and random
• Recognize expressions of uncertainty in language
• Evaluate the causes of uncertainty in geospatial data
• Describe a stochastic error model for a natural phenomenon
• Explain how the familiar concepts of geographic objects and fields affect the conceptualization of uncertainty
• Recognize the degree to which the importance of uncertainty depends on scale and application
• Differentiate uncertainty in geospatial situations from vagueness
##### DM-31 - Mathematical models of vagueness: Fuzzy sets and rough sets
• Compare and contrast the relative merits of fuzzy sets, rough sets, and other models
• Differentiate between fuzzy set membership and probabilistic set membership
• Explain the problems inherent in fuzzy sets
• Create appropriate membership functions to model vague phenomena
##### DM-30 - Vagueness
• Compare and contrast the meanings of related terms such as vague, fuzzy, imprecise, indefinite, indiscrete, unclear, and ambiguous
• Describe the cognitive processes that tend to create vagueness
• Recognize the degree to which vagueness depends on scale
• Evaluate vagueness in the locations, time, attributes, and other aspects of geographic phenomena
• Differentiate between the following concepts: vagueness and ambiguity, well defined and poorly defined objects and fields, and discord and non-specificity
• Identify the hedges used in language to convey vagueness
• Evaluate the role that system complexity, dynamic processes, and subjectivity play in the creation of vague phenomena and concepts
• Differentiate applications in which vagueness is an acceptable trait from those in which it is unacceptable