- Create a profile of a cross section through a terrain using a topographic map and a digital elevation model (DEM)
- Measure point-feature movement and point-feature diffusion on maps
- Describe maps that can be used to find direction, distance, or position, plan routes, calculate area or volume, or describe shape
- Explain how maps can be used in determining an optimal route or facility selection
- Explain how maps can be used in terrain analysis (e.g., elevation determination, surface profiles, slope, viewsheds, and gradient)
- Explain how the types of distortion indicated by projection metadata on a map will affect map measurements
- Explain the differences between true north, magnetic north, and grid north directional references
- Compare and contrast the manual measurement of the areas of polygons on a map printed from a GIS with those calculated by the computer and discuss the implications these variations in measurement might have on map use
- Determine feature counts of point, line, and area features on maps
- Analyze spatial patterns of selected point, line, and area feature arrangements on maps
- Calculate slope using a topographic map and a DEM
- Calculate the planimetric and actual road distances between two locations on a topographic map
- Plan an orienteering tour of a specific length that traverses slopes of an appropriate steepness and crosses streams in places that can be forded based on a topographic map
- Describe the differences between azimuths, bearings, and other systems for indicating directions
The Cartography & Visualization section encapsulates competencies related to the design and use of maps and mapping technology. This section covers core topics of reference and thematic maps design, as well as the emerging topics of interaction design, web map design, and mobile map design. This section also covers historical and contemporary influences on cartography and evolving data and critical considerations for map design and use.
Topics in this Knowledge Area are listed thematically below. Existing topics are in regular font and linked directly to their original entries (published in 2006; these contain only Learning Objectives). Entries that have been updated and expanded are in bold. Forthcoming, future topics are italicized.