## map design fundamentals

##### CV-05 - Statistical Mapping (Enumeration, Normalization, Classification, Dasymetric)
• Discuss advantages and disadvantages of various data classification methods for choropleth mapping, including equal interval, quantiles, mean-standard deviation, natural breaks, and “optimal” methods
• Demonstrate how different classification schemes produce very different maps from a single set of interval- or ratio-level data
• Write algorithms to perform equal interval, quantiles, mean-standard deviation, natural breaks, and “optimal” classification for choropleth mapping
##### CV-04 - Scale and Generalization
Scale and generalization are two fundamental, related concepts in geospatial data. Scale has multiple meanings depending on context, both within geographic information science and in other disciplines. Typically it refers to relative proportions between objects in the real world and their representations. Generalization is the act of modifying detail, usually reducing it, in geospatial data. It is often driven by a need to represent data at coarsened resolution, being typically a consequence of reducing representation scale. Multiple computations and graphical modication processes can be used to achieve generalization, each introducing increased abstraction to the data, its symbolization, or both.
##### CV-04 - Scale and Generalization

Scale and generalization are two fundamental, related concepts in geospatial data. Scale has multiple meanings depending on context, both within geographic information science and in other disciplines. Typically it refers to relative proportions between objects in the real world and their representations. Generalization is the act of modifying detail, usually reducing it, in geospatial data. It is often driven by a need to represent data at coarsened resolution, being typically a consequence of reducing representation scale. Multiple computations and graphical modication processes can be used to achieve generalization, each introducing increased abstraction to the data, its symbolization, or both.

##### CV-09 - Color Theory
• List the range of factors that should be considered in selecting colors
• Discuss the role of “gamut” in choosing colors that can be reproduced on various devices and media
• Explain how real-world connotations (e.g., blue=water, white=snow) can be used to determine color selections on maps
• Exemplify colors for different forms of harmony, concordance, and balance
• Estimate RGB (red, green, blue) primary amounts in a selection of colors
• Plan color proofing suited for checking a map publication job
• Select colors appropriate for map readers with color limitations
• Specify a set of colors in device-independent Commision Internationale de L’Eclairage (CIE) specifications
• Determine the CMYK (cyan, magenta, yellow, and black) primary amounts in a selection of colors
• Select a color scheme (e.g., qualitative, sequential, diverging, spectral) that is appropriate for a given map purpose and variable
• Describe how cultural differences with respect to color associations impact map design
• Describe the common color models used in mapping
• Describe color decisions made for various production workflows
##### CV-08 - Symbolization and the Visual Variables

Maps communicate information about the world by using symbols to represent specific ideas or concepts. The relationship between a map symbol and the information that symbol represents must be clear and easily interpreted. The symbol design process requires first an understanding of the underlying nature of the data to be mapped (e.g., its spatial dimensions and level of measurement), then the selection of symbols that suggest those data attributes. Cartographers developed the visual variable system, a graphic vocabulary, to express these relationships on maps. Map readers respond to the visual variable system in predictable ways, enabling mapmakers to design map symbols for most types of information with a high degree of reliability.

##### CV-07 - Visual Hierarchy, Layout, and Map Elements
• List the major factors that should be considered in preparing a map
• Discuss how to create an intellectual and visual hierarchy on maps
• Discuss the differences between maps that use the same data but are for different purposes and intended audiences
• Discuss Tufte’s influence (or lack thereof) on cartographic design
• Critique the graphic design of several maps in terms of balance, legibility, clarity, visual contrast, figure-ground organization, and hierarchal organization
• Critique the layout of several maps, taking into account the map audience and purpose and the graphic design (visual balance, hierarchy, figure-ground), as well as the map components (north arrow, scale bar, and legend)
• Design maps that are appropriate for users with vision limitations
• Apply one or more Gestalt principles to achieve appropriate figure-ground for map elements
• Prepare different map layouts using the same map components (main map area, inset maps, titles, legends, scale bars, north arrows, grids, and graticule) to produce maps with very distinctive purposes
• Prepare different maps using the same data for different purposes and intended audiences (e.g., expert and novice hikers)
• Describe differences in design needed for a map that is to be viewed on the Internet versus as a 5-by 7-foot poster, including a discussion of the effect of viewing distance, lighting, and media type
• Describe the design needs of special purpose maps, such as subdivision plans, cadastral mapping, drainage plans, nautical charts, aeronautical charts, geological maps, military maps, wiremesh volume maps, and 3-D plans of urban change
##### CV-05 - Statistical Mapping (Enumeration, Normalization, Classification, Dasymetric)
• Discuss advantages and disadvantages of various data classification methods for choropleth mapping, including equal interval, quantiles, mean-standard deviation, natural breaks, and “optimal” methods
• Demonstrate how different classification schemes produce very different maps from a single set of interval- or ratio-level data
• Write algorithms to perform equal interval, quantiles, mean-standard deviation, natural breaks, and “optimal” classification for choropleth mapping
##### CV-04 - Scale and Generalization
• Explain why the reduction of map scale sometimes results in the need for mapped features to be reduced in size and moved
• Identify mapping tasks that require each of the following: smoothing, aggregation, simplification, and displacement
• Illustrate specific examples of feature elimination and simplification suited to mapping at smaller scales
• Apply appropriate selection criteria to change the display of map data to a smaller scale
• Discuss the limitations of current technological approaches to generalization for mapping purposes
• Explain how generalization of one data theme can and must be reflected across multiple themes (e.g., if the river moves, the boundary, roads and towns also need to move)
• Explain how the decisions for selection and generalization are made with regard to symbolization in mapping
##### CV-10 - Typography
• Name the authorities used to confirm the spelling of geographic names for a specific mapping project
• Compare and contrast the strengths and limitations of methods for automatic label placement
• Compare and contrast the relative merits of having map labels placed dynamically versus having them saved as annotation data
• Explain how text properties can be used as visual variables to graphically represent the type and attributes of geographic features
• Explain how to label features having indeterminate boundaries (e.g., canyons, oceans)
• Position labels on a map to name point, line, and area features
• Apply the appropriate technology to place name labels on a map using a geographic names database
• Set type font, size, style, and color for labels on a map by applying basic typography design principles
• Create a set of mapping problems that can be used to illustrate point, line, and area label conventions for placing text on maps
• Solve a labeling problem for a dense collection of features on a map using minimal leader lines
• Describe the role of labels in assisting readers in understanding feature locations (e.g., label to the right of point, label follows line indicating its position, area label assists understanding extent of feature and feature type)
##### CV-09 - Color Theory
• List the range of factors that should be considered in selecting colors
• Discuss the role of “gamut” in choosing colors that can be reproduced on various devices and media
• Explain how real-world connotations (e.g., blue=water, white=snow) can be used to determine color selections on maps
• Exemplify colors for different forms of harmony, concordance, and balance
• Estimate RGB (red, green, blue) primary amounts in a selection of colors
• Plan color proofing suited for checking a map publication job
• Select colors appropriate for map readers with color limitations
• Specify a set of colors in device-independent Commision Internationale de L’Eclairage (CIE) specifications
• Determine the CMYK (cyan, magenta, yellow, and black) primary amounts in a selection of colors
• Select a color scheme (e.g., qualitative, sequential, diverging, spectral) that is appropriate for a given map purpose and variable
• Describe how cultural differences with respect to color associations impact map design
• Describe the common color models used in mapping
• Describe color decisions made for various production workflows