All Topics

AM-21 - The spatial weights matrix
  • Explain how different types of spatial weights matrices are defined and calculated
  • Discuss the appropriateness of different types of spatial weights matrices for various problems
  • Construct a spatial weights matrix for lattice, point, and area patterns
  • Explain the rationale used for each type of spatial weights matrix
DM-13 - The topological model
  • Define terms related to topology (e.g., adjacency, connectivity, overlap, intersect, logical consistency)
  • Describe the integrity constraints of integrated topological models (e.g., POLYVRT)
  • Discuss the historical roots of the Census Bureau’s creation of GBF/DIME as the foundation for the development of topological data structures
  • Explain why integrated topological models have lost favor in commercial GIS software
  • Evaluate the positive and negative impacts of the shift from integrated topological models
  • Discuss the role of graph theory in topological structures
  • Exemplify the concept of planar enforcement (e.g., TIN triangles)
  • Demonstrate how a topological structure can be represented in a relational database structure
  • Explain the advantages and disadvantages of topological data models
  • Illustrate a topological relation
DM-10 - The Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN) model
  • Describe how to generate a unique TIN solution using Delaunay triangulation
  • Describe the architecture of the TIN model
  • Construct a TIN manually from a set of spot elevations
  • Delineate a set of break lines that improve the accuracy of a TIN
  • Describe the conditions under which a TIN might be more practical than GRID
  • Demonstrate the use of the TIN model for different statistical surfaces (e.g., terrain elevation, population density, disease incidence) in a GIS software application
FC-27 - Thematic accuracy
  • Explain the distinction between thematic accuracy, geometric accuracy, and topological fidelity
  • Outline the SDTS and ISO TC211 standards for thematic accuracy
  • Discuss how measures of spatial autocorrelation may be used to evaluate thematic accuracy
  • Describe the component measures and the utility of a misclassification matrix
  • Describe the different measurement levels on which thematic accuracy is based
AM-86 - Theory of error propagation
  • Describe stochastic error models
  • Exemplify stochastic error models used in GIScience
FC-08 - Time
  • Differentiate between mathematical and phenomenological theories of the nature of time
  • Recognize the role that time plays in “static” GISystems
  • Compare and contrast models of a given spatial process using continuous and discrete perspectives of time
  • Select the temporal elements of geographic phenomena that need to be represented in particular GIS applications
  • Exemplify different temporal frames of reference: linear and cyclical, absolute and relative
DM-28 - Topological relationships
  • Define various terms used to describe topological relationships, such as disjoint, overlap, within, and intersect
  • List the possible topological relationships between entities in space (e.g., 9-intersection) and time
  • Use methods that analyze topological relationships
  • Recognize the contributions of topology (the branch of mathematics) to the study of geographic relationships
  • Describe geographic phenomena in terms of their topological relationships in space and time to other phenomena
PD-09 - Transport protocols
  • Explain the relevance of transport protocols to GIS&T
  • Describe the characteristics of the Open Digital Resource Description Framework (RDF) protocol
  • Describe the characteristics of the Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol (OPeNDAP)
  • Describe the characteristics of the Web Ontology Language (OWL)
  • Describe the characteristics of the Global Change Master Directory (GCMD)
  • Describe the characteristics of the Web Feature Services (WFS) protocols
  • Describe the characteristics of the Web Mapping Services (WMS) protocols
  • Describe the characteristics of the Web Catalog Services (WCS) protocols
  • Create a service that delivers geospatial data over the Internet using a standard transport protocol
  • Create an application that consumes Web services using standards transport protocols
  • Describe the characteristics of the Z39.50 protocol
  • Describe the characteristics of the Open Digital Libraries (ODL) protocol
  • Describe the characteristics of the Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP)
DA-03 - Typical CA applications
  • Exemplify CA simulations of urban growth
  • Exemplify CA simulations of real estate development
  • Exemplify CA simulations of wild fire
CV-10 - Typography

The selection of appropriate type on maps, far from an arbitrary design decision, is an integral part of establishing the content and tone of the map. Typefaces have personalities, which contribute to the rhetorical message of the map. It is important to understand how to assess typefaces for their personalities, but also to understand which typefaces may be more or less legible in a labeling context. Beyond the choice of typeface, effective map labels will have a visual hierarchy and allow the user to easily associate labels to their features and feature types. The cartographer must understand and modify typographic visual variables to support both the hierarchy and label-feature associations.